Hair products with growth activators: what are they?


Stress, diet, even the change of season — all this affects the condition of the hair. In insufficiently comfortable conditions, they not only fade and become brittle, but also fall out faster — and new ones “fall asleep” while still in the hair follicle and stop growing. Special tools — activators — help to cope with hair loss and stimulate their growth. What are they and how do they work?

Types of hair growth products in pharmacies and stores

A magical elixir that will turn any girl into Rapunzel or save a man from baldness has not yet been invented. Such transformations are performed in beauty salons with the help of hair extensions or in the surgical room by hair transplantation. However, there are remedies for hair growth at home that do not require such sacrifices. And the effect of some is visible after several uses.

What are effective hair growth products?

  • Shampoos.
  • Masks.
  • emulsions.
  • Serums.
  • Balms, etc.

Everything that can be applied to the hair — everything can contain one special component or a whole complex. There are also folk remedies that seem to help hair grow faster and stronger — the same castor oil.

It is interesting!

There is not a single clinical study that would confirm the effect of castor oil on hair. But there is a case described by the doctors of Karur Government Medical College and Hospital (India): a girl put a mixture of two oils on her head — castor and coconut, and this cocktail turned her head into a «crow’s nest» and glued her hair so tightly that she had to turn to clinic for help.

There are also cases of visiting doctors after applying homemade masks for hair growth, the recipe of which included hot red pepper. Using this remedy at home is quite risky, because if you use it ineptly, you are guaranteed to get a scalp burn.

Hair growth products that are applied to the scalp for a long time work best — not like shampoo or balm. And the richest composition, which not only stimulates growth, but also nourishes the hair and scalp, is in masks. During the holding of the mask, the spectrum of useful substances has time to penetrate deeply into the hair structure and begin to act. And, what is especially important: the action of the mask does not end after it is washed off.


Masks-activators of hair growth should penetrate not only into the hair, but also to the bulb, and act in a complex way. Therefore, they are kept on the head for 15 minutes, and the procedures are carried out in courses.

How hair growth activators work: composition and effective components

How hair growth activators work: composition and effective components

The purpose of the activators is to help the hair get a stimulus for growth and give them nutrition so that intensive growth does not deplete the bulb. To stimulate growth, active ingredients are needed that accelerate intracellular metabolism, cellular respiration and promote the transfer of hair follicles from the dormant phase to the growth phase.


There are two types of hair loss — alopecia, caused by various pathologies, and temporary growth arrest, in which the follicles are not active enough. Pathological alopecia is treated by a trichologist: he understands the causes and prescribes drugs. He can also prescribe vitamins and masks for hair growth as additional support for general therapy.

Masks stimulate hair growth in many ways:

  • Rapidly expanding blood vessels, which enhances blood supply;
  • Causing local irritation and mild stress to also increase blood circulation and «pull» more nutrients;
  • Nourishing hair and skin;
  • Causing a short-term lack of oxygen in the hair follicles to awaken dormant cells.

Mask-compress The best option is a mask for hair growth, which simultaneously stimulates and nourishes, moisturizes the skin and cares for the hair. For example, the “Hair Growth Activator” compress mask from the “Special Series” from the Russian Cosmetics manufacturer contains a special SmalterolHot agent made from Mexican vanilla and red pepper esters. Unlike the usual action of the hot component of red pepper — capsaicin — SmalterolHot does not cause scalp irritation.


Japanese scientists from Nagoya City University proved that capsaicin from red hot pepper increases the production of insulin-like growth factor I, which promotes pilosis not only in seasonal and stress hair loss, but also in alopecia.

Apply hot pepper on the scalp with caution: it can cause local irritation. However, this is not the case with the Hair Growth Activator: Mexican vanilla makes sure that the skin and hair are comfortable.

In addition, the mask contains ginger root extract, known for its aseptic and anti-inflammatory effects (Nature Reviews Rheumatology). And coconut extract not only soothes the skin, but also provides deep hydration.

This composition helps to awaken dormant hair follicles, and hair grows not only faster and thicker, but also healthier due to the complex of active ingredients.


The effect of the Hair Growth Activator is noticeable after 5-6 applications, the recommended course for both women and men is 2-3 months.

How to choose and use masks for hair growth?

How to choose and use masks for hair growth?

In order for products for hair growth and density to bring maximum benefit and minimum harm, you need to choose them according to your type and apply and rinse correctly. What is important to consider?

  • Manufacturer trust: well-known brands do not use potentially harmful substances in their products.
  • The absence of possible allergic reactions: homemade masks with natural remedies in poorly controlled volumes often “sin” with this. However, any person can have an individual reaction: check the composition on the skin of the elbow bend before the first application. If after half an hour there is no redness on the spot, the mask can be applied to the head.
  • Scalp type: alcohol infusions, pepper or mustard powder without additional moisturizing ingredients dry out the skin.
  • Exposure time: you need to keep the masks on your head exactly as long as the manufacturer recommends. Longer doesn’t mean better!
  • Be sure to thoroughly rinse off the mask by rinsing your hair with plenty of warm water without shampoo.

Choose well-balanced professional growth activators created by experts and impress those around you with thick and shiny hair!


Published on 09/06/2022 20:55, updated on 09/16/2022 12:00

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Used sources

The impact of various detergents on the mechanical properties of hair / Zhdanova I. Yu., Krysanova T. A. // Regional geosystems 2014 Number 3

Administration of capsaicin and isoflavone promotes hair growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor-I production in mice and in humans with alopecia / Harada N, Okajima K, Arai M, Kurihara H, Nakagata N. // Growth Horm IGF Res. 2007

Getting to the root of the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger / McHugh J. // Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2021

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Thrush: treatment and prevention


Thrush (or vulvovaginal candidiasis) is a fungal disease that is accompanied by itching, burning, whitish discharge with a sour smell. Candidiasis is more common in women: this is directly related to the structural features of the genitourinary system and the composition of the vaginal microflora. Thrush, which is not treated on time, can cause complications. MedAboutMe tells how to properly deal with the disease and reduce the risk of relapse.

General recommendations for candidiasis

Therapy of the disease is aimed at eliminating risk factors (diseases of the gastrointestinal and urogenital tract), restoring the functioning of the immune and endocrine systems. The main stages of treatment are the elimination of unpleasant symptoms and the prevention of recurrence of thrush. Therapy of the disease includes the use of local and systemic drugs.

Both in acute and chronic candidiasis, the general rules must be observed:

  • refuse sexual intercourse;
  • if antibacterial drugs are being taken, treatment of candidiasis should be started after the end of antimicrobial therapy;
  • do not use various soaps, gels and wipes for intimate hygiene;
  • change underwear regularly.

Treatment of acute candidiasis

With a mild form, local preparations are used that contain antifungal (antimycotic) substances in their composition: clotrimazole, ketoconazole, pimafucin. They come in the form of vaginal suppositories or tablets that are inserted into the vagina at night.

It is also possible to use douches and baths with anti-inflammatory and antiseptic solutions. Symptomatic therapy can relieve itching, burning and reduce discomfort.

With a more severe course of acute candidiasis or in the absence of the effect of local therapy, systemic antifungal agents are prescribed. Their reception is carried out under the supervision of a physician. The duration of therapy is from 10 to 14 days.

Therapy for recurrent thrush

Therapy for recurrent thrush

Treatment of recurrent candidiasis is longer: it takes from 3 to 6 months. Patients are prescribed both local and systemic antifungal therapy, as well as drugs to normalize the vaginal microflora (probiotics and prebiotics).

In 2020, scientists from the Capital Medical University in Beijing published a paper assessing the sensitivity of Candida fungi to various antimycotic drugs in recurrent candidiasis. The study showed that the lowest sensitivity was observed with the use of agents belonging to the azole group (clotrimazole, itraconazole, miconazole), and the highest — with nystatin.

Prevention of candidiasis

Thrush is a disease that can return again when exposed to provoking factors (SARS, stress, hormonal disorders). Recommendations for the prevention of candidiasis:

  • refusal to use panty liners;
  • prevention of vaginal microtrauma (use of lubricants);
  • the use of only special means for intimate hygiene;
  • treatment of chronic diseases;
  • taking antibiotics strictly according to indications;
  • strengthening immunity.

Published on 05/05/2020 23:32, updated on 09/16/2021 16:34

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Used sources

The combination of vulvovaginal candidiasis and intestinal candidiasis: the rationale for a rational approach to therapy / Malova I.O., Kuznetsova Yu.A. // Bulletin of Medical Science 2017 Number 3

Analysis of homology and drug sensitivity of vaginal isolates of 10 patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in recurrent episodes / Zhang Z, Bai HH, Wang FJ // Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2020 #55

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Treatment of thrush during pregnancy

Pregnancy is not always cloudless, sometimes it is slightly overshadowed by a woman’s health problems, such as candidiasis. It happens in 30% of the fair sex during this period of life.

Health, doctor’s advice, cystitis, thrush

Cystitis is a fairly common disease, which most often affects women. This is due to the structure of the female reproductive system. Quite often, cystitis is confused with thrush.


Causes of thrush in men, clinical signs and treatment


Thrush, or candidiasis, is a fungal disease that most often affects the mucous membranes of the genital organs, less often the skin, oral cavity, internal organs, and so on. The causative agent of this infection are specific opportunistic fungi belonging to the genus Candida. Despite the fact that this pathology is most often found in women, sometimes males can also encounter it. Below we will talk about the causes of thrush in men, the symptoms and treatment.

Why does thrush occur and what are the symptoms in men?

As we have already said, thrush is caused by fungi belonging to the genus Candida. Despite the fact that asymptomatic carriage of yeast-like fungi on the penis occurs in 14-18% of healthy men, this infection is most often transmitted sexually from a sick woman.

This disease is significantly more often diagnosed in men with phimosis, diabetes, obesity. In addition, as predisposing factors, one can consider a decrease in the level of immune protection, chronic bacterial diseases of the urogenital tract, non-observance of personal hygiene rules, and so on.

If we talk about the symptoms, then in males, candidiasis most often occurs in the form of balanoposthitis, in which the head and foreskin of the penis become inflamed.

First of all, there are complaints of itchy sensations and a burning sensation in the affected area. The head and the skin covering it become hyperemic and edematous, covered with a whitish-grayish coating. In some cases, weeping erosions appear on the surface of the inflamed area, which facilitate the secondary attachment of a bacterial infection.

Sometimes fungal flora can affect the urethra. In this case, there are complaints of burning and slight itching in the urethra, the appearance of scanty discharge, most often of a muco-watery, less often purulent nature. An endoscopic examination can reveal a white plaque on the mucous membrane of the urethra, which, when removed, exposes reddened and edematous tissues.

Treatment tactics for thrush

Treatment tactics for thrush

To begin with, we emphasize that all treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a physician. Before using any medication, you should consult a specialist.

The basis of the treatment of candidiasis in both men and women is antifungal drugs.

With a mild course of infection, it is often possible to confine ourselves to local antimycotics, with a severe one, it becomes necessary to take systemic antifungal agents.

Well in the treatment of candidal balanitis and balanoposthitis has proven itself such a method as the complex use of a systemic antimycotic — fluconazole and a combined local remedy containing hydrocortisone, natamycin and neomycin, which was proven by scientists from the Republican Center for Dermatology and Venereology in Bishkek, in a work published in 2011.

In parallel, if necessary, immunomodulators, vitamin therapy and other restorative drugs are prescribed.

Guide to Practical Mycology / Kubanova A.A., Potekaev N.S., Potekaev N.N. 2001

Complex treatment of candidal balanoposthitis / Usubaliev M.B., Kerimalieva Zh.A. // Medicine of Kyrgyzstan 2011 #5


Symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy in the early stages


A normal pregnancy develops in several stages: a mature egg enters the fallopian tube during ovulation and meets with a sperm cell. The fertilized egg is pushed out by the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it is fixed and begins to gradually change, turning into a growing embryo. If the process of transferring a fertilized egg to the uterus is disturbed, an ectopic pregnancy develops. In such a situation, the egg is attached somewhere in the wrong place: most often in the fallopian tube, less often in the cervix, on the ovary, or even in the abdominal cavity. This is a rather dangerous condition, because an embryo growing outside the uterus can lead to various complications, including death. The symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy in the early stages of its development are rather vague, but timely diagnosis plays a very important role in preventing the undesirable consequences of such a condition.

Symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy in the early stages

It is very, very difficult to discern an ectopic pregnancy in the early stages of development. In fact, this condition is manifested by all the same signs as a normal pregnancy:

  • a woman does not have another menstruation (this symptom is recorded in 90% of cases);
  • there is an increase in the sensitivity of the mammary glands;
  • may slightly sip the lower abdomen (pulling pain in the abdomen is recorded in 95% of cases of ectopic pregnancy);
  • signs of toxicosis may appear;
  • appetite and taste preferences change, etc.

However, among the symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy in the early stages, there are a number of signs that may cause some suspicion. In particular, in this condition, from the first days of the delay, a woman is disturbed by spotting of a dark color. In some cases, the next menstruation still comes at the right time or with a slight delay, but the discharge seems to be weaker than usual. In general, spotting from the genital tract occurs in 50-80% of ectopic pregnancies.

At 4-5 weeks of delay, a woman may experience pulling pains in the lower abdomen (on the right or left, where the fallopian tubes are located).

In 87% of cases, an ectopic pregnancy develops with few symptoms, so its early diagnosis is difficult for doctors.

What does the doctor pay attention to?

What does the doctor pay attention to?

When seeking medical attention immediately after a missed period (with minimal signs of an ectopic pregnancy), the doctor may look for:

  • soreness of the uterine appendages during a bimanual (two-handed) study;
  • soreness of the cervix in response to its displacement;
  • the size of the uterus that does not correspond to the expected gestational age, etc.

Based on the data obtained and the suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy, the doctor necessarily sends the patient for additional studies. Ultrasound, determination of the level of hCG in the blood, as well as a laparoscopic examination helps to detect the problem in time.

Obvious signs of an ectopic pregnancy

Very often, an ectopic pregnancy is diagnosed at the stage when it is artificially interrupted and / or leads to a rupture of the fallopian tube. In such a situation, a woman is faced with:

  • acute and severe pain;
  • bleeding;
  • pain in the rectum (in parallel, there may be an imperative urge to defecate);
  • severe pain in the shoulder (this symptom is due to irritation of certain nerve fibers in the abdominal cavity);
  • severe dizziness, nausea and vomiting.

The appearance of such symptoms is a reason to immediately call an ambulance.

An ectopic pregnancy is a serious stress for a woman. In 2020, an article by British scientists (Tommy’s National Center for Miscarriage Research, Queen Charlottes and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College, London, UK) was published on the psychological consequences of early pregnancy loss. Studies have shown that even 9 months after ectopic pregnancy, distress in patients remains at a clinically significant level. Therefore, after a loss, women need competent psychological help.

Published on 05/06/2020 15:02, updated on 08/27/2021 23:05

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Used sources

Posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression following miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study. / Farren J., Jalmbrant M., Falconieri N. etc. // Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020

Ectopic pregnancy. Causes, symptoms, treatment, prognosis / Sarsembayeva M.M. // Bulletin of Surgery of Kazakhstan 2012 #4

Modern aspects of the pathogenesis of diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy / Dolgikh V.T., Pronoza A.V., Stepanov S.S. And etc. // Omsk Scientific Bulletin 2002 #12

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Nose diagnosis. What diseases can be determined by the type of runny nose


One of the first signs of various inflammatory infections of the ENT area is discharge from the nose, they are also common snot.

It happens that such secretions are transparent and liquid, they are white and thick, sometimes they are green, and even with streaks of blood, in some cases they may even be accompanied by an unpleasant odor. It is enough for a doctor to look at them to make a diagnosis. What can they tell about, explained Candidate of Medical Sciences, otorhinolaryngologist of the highest category Vladimir Zaitsev.

Transparent highlights

When the discharge is clear and rather liquid, the doctor says, we are guided by the fact that this is a viral infection. Most often in such a situation they talk about acute rhinitis. “The virus arrives quickly, in 4-5, a maximum of 7 days, it’s even possible sometimes self-healing, when a person does nothing at all, inflammation ends, the virus dies, and everything ends by itself,” Vladimir Zaitsev explains. By the end of treatment, such secretions may acquire some viscosity.

The following symptoms may join:

  • difficulty breathing through the nose;
  • sneezing
  • noise and ringing in the ears.

There may also be fever, weakness, muscle pain.

Clear discharge is also characteristic of allergic reactions. With rhinitis of this nature, the nose is very stuffy. A characteristic feature is seasonality or exposure to some kind of allergen, such as dust or animal hair.

A rare situation is called nasal liquorrhea. There will also be transparent selections. But they don’t heal. That is, despite active therapy, a runny nose does not go away. In this situation, it is recommended to take a mucus test to check whether it is cerebrospinal fluid. It happens that this is how she leaks.

White discharge

Whitish discharge can occur with problems such as a fungal infection or polyposis ethmoiditis, nasal polyps.

In the first case — with a fungus — a bright additional symptom will be a strong itching in the nose, notes Vladimir Zaitsev. It will itch so hard that a person will be ready to take at least a stick, at least a hairpin, to scratch.

If we are talking about polyps in the nose, then the discharge will be whitish-transparent, more viscous. Vladimir Zaitsev warns that the key additional symptom here is the lack of smell. “Polyps often develop against the background of inflammatory or purulent pathologies of diseases of the paranasal sinuses. The mucosa swells so that it fills the sinus and, not fitting in volume, goes into the nasal cavity. This is how a polyp is formed. Against this background, chronic inflammation in the nose develops. If you do not start treatment on time, polyps grow and increase in number, ”the otorhinolaryngologist notes.

Green discharge

If we are talking about yellowish-green discharge, when they are yellow at first and then gradually turn green, then doctors may suspect a bacterial infection, warns Vladimir Zaitsev. The mucus becomes thicker. Most often we are talking about purulent sinusitis or purulent sinusitis.

At the same time, such a vivid and characteristic sign of the disease appears as severe pain in the area of ​​​​the bridge of the nose and in the area of ​​u200bu200bthe sinuses — approximately on the cheeks, under the eyes. The pain may increase when the head is tilted and in the evening hours, it may radiate to the temples or jaw.

Green discharge from the nose can also be with a pathology such as ozena. Scientifically, such a pathology is called atrophic rhinitis, emphasizes the otorhinolaryngologist Zaitsev. Accompanied by such a symptom as a fetid odor from the nose. It becomes a consequence of overdrying of the mucous membrane, against which a lot of crusts form in the nose, which, in fact, exude an unpleasant odor. The person himself does not feel that he smells unpleasant.

Bloody issues

If the mucus is streaked with blood, and there is also a feeling of a foreign body in the nose, in addition, a person suddenly, unwillingly and without making any effort, loses weight, it is worth visiting an oncologist, Vladimir Zaitsev recommends.

True, sometimes blood signals not so terrible diagnoses. With high blood pressure, for example, due to exercise or changes in atmospheric pressure, a capillary in the nose can burst. Then there will be blood and mucus, but there is still more blood, the otorhinolaryngologist emphasizes. It can also bleed a nose if a person has a weak vascular wall. It dries up during the inflammatory process, then the risk of bleeding is quite likely. If blood appears in the discharge, Vladimir Zaitsev advises, it is worth visiting a doctor as soon as possible to establish the cause and begin therapy.

Otorhinolaryngologist Zaitsev notes that it is better not to ignore any problems with the nose and not let it take its course. After all, even harmless, at first glance, a runny nose can develop into severe and dangerous complications — sinusitis, inflammation of the frontal sinuses, otitis media and other troubles.


Adam’s apple: what you need to know, what it is for in the body and what damage is possible


Adam’s apple is a collection of cartilage located on the larynx in the region of the thyroid gland. Another name — Adam’s apple — was assigned to the Adam’s apple from the biblical pages. According to legend, when Adam broke the ban and ate an apple, a piece of fruit got stuck in his throat, forming a hill.

It is this protruding bone that distinguishes men from women who do not have an Adam’s apple. The manifestation of elevation can be seen if the girl throws her head back, but it is difficult to call it an Adam’s apple. But there are cases of the appearance of Adam’s apple in the female. They are associated with hormonal failure and the predominance of testosterone — the male hormone — over estrogen — the female sex hormone. But such cases are pathological.

Adam’s apple begins to appear in young people during puberty, from about 13 years old. Age varies and depends on the individual characteristics of the body and the structure of the cartilage. During this period, the cartilages become harder, thicken, and an Adam’s apple is formed.


The basis of the Adam’s apple and the larynx are interconnected cartilages. Thyroid — the largest of them, occupies more than half of the larynx and its entire anterior region. It can be easily felt under the skin with your fingers. This applies to men, women, and children.

The thyroid cartilage is aligned with the epiglottis at the top. Together they form the entrance to the larynx. The cricoid cartilage, located below, is shaped like a ring. On the back side, it is slightly enlarged. The arytenoid cartilages are attached to this cartilage.

The thyroid cartilage is formed from 2 symmetrical rudiments. They grow towards each other. As the cartilage grows, it transforms into two halves that meet at an angle at the front of the neck. When a person is born, this angle is almost 90˚. That is why in young children the protruding bone in the thyroid gland is not visible. As the child grows, the angle does not change. And only during a hormonal surge, the angle between the plates becomes sharper. At this time, young people have an Adam’s apple.

Despite the fact that the Adam’s apple in women and girls is not visible externally, it performs exactly the same functions as in the male body.



The main task of the Adam’s apple is to protect the vocal cords. Damage to hard plates is not so easy. Therefore, a mechanical external impact in the neck area may not cause any damage or injury. Adam’s apple performs this function in women and men equally, regardless of age. Other functions of the Adam’s apple:

  • Distribution of air and food in the larynx. Adam’s apple allows a person to swallow food and liquid normally without choking.
  • Sound formation. The timbre of the voice depends on the location of the cartilage. Depending on its location, the output sound can be low, high, or medium.
  • Singing. The movement of the larynx allows a person to produce a sound similar to singing. Moreover, the sound occurs only when exhaling.

For a more accurate understanding of the work of the Adam’s apple, it is important to know how the vocal cords work. When inhaled, they are pressed against the walls of the larynx and free the passage for air flow. On exhalation, they remain in their places. When exiting with sound, they begin to approach and vibrate. Inhalation with sound is possible, but difficult to control.


The main and most common types of Adam’s apple injuries include:

  • fracture;
  • injury;
  • squeezing;
  • crush.

The neck is a part of the body that is poorly protected. In this area, various injuries are often observed. Moreover, they can be acquired or congenital. Often, pathologies become dangerous not only for health, but also for life.

Most often, the Adam’s apple is injured by an external blow or impact. The manifestation of anomalies in its structure is a rare occurrence. A visible change in shape with hormonal disorders is a sign of another disease, and not its cause.

Solid cartilage, which is the basis of the Adam’s apple, reliably protects the front of the neck and the organs located in it. Children and women additionally have a layer of fatty tissue in the cartilage area. It softens external shocks, but does not fully protect.



The main cause of a fracture of the Adam’s apple is often blows to the neck. They can be obtained in a traffic accident, in a careless fall, in a fight, suffocation and other cases. If the Adam’s apple is damaged, a person will be able to suspect it by the following signs:

  • sudden, sharp pain in the neck;
  • external change in the shape of the neck;
  • breathing difficulties;
  • inability to take a breath;
  • often — respiratory arrest.


A less severe injury to the Adam’s apple is a bruise, which is often manifested by pain. At the same time, breathing remains even and is not disturbed. Trauma can also have physical manifestations. For example, swelling or hematoma. To eliminate the signs of a bruise, you do not need to see a doctor and specialized treatment. But it is better to make an appointment with a specialist and undergo a full examination for the presence or exclusion of severe injuries and serious injuries.


The second most severe injury to the Adam’s apple is squeezing. It appears with prolonged compression of the throat area. The condition is often accompanied by displacement of the cartilage. At the same time, breathing can be disturbed, the voice becomes hoarse, hoarse, and subsequently completely disappears.

This is a serious case that can lead to death. If symptoms are detected, it is important to immediately take the victim to the hospital and provide medical assistance.

Surgery is the first line of treatment. The doctor restores the larynx with a surgical intervention.



In most cases, crushing leads to death. The reason for this is the untimely assistance to the victim. Cartilage with a broken structure cannot perform its functions. The flow of incoming air is blocked and death occurs within a few minutes.

In addition to the main cartilage, the tracheal rings are also damaged. You can save the victim if you immediately take him to the emergency room. Doctors will correct the situation with a surgical method. But there are not many such cases, because the destruction of the Adam’s apple prevents the passage of air and breathing.

MedAboutMe also recommends reading «Acute and Chronic Inflammation of the Esophagus» for symptoms and causes of esophagitis, which can present as an Adam’s apple field syndrome.

Laryngotracheoplasty with transplanted laryngotracheoplastic thyroid cartilage ala to close a large pediatric tracheocutaneous fistula / Cheng J., Jacobs I. // Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013

Anatomical evolution of the thyroid cartilage from childhood to adulthood: evaluation by computed tomography / Glikson E., Sagiv D., Eyal A., Wolf M., Primovfever A. // Laryngoscope 2017

Anatomy, Head and Neck, Adam’s Apple / Fitzpatrick TH, Siccardi MA. // In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing 2022


Tubal ligation: what you need to know about this operation


Tubal ligation is a surgery that «ties» a woman’s fallopian tubes. This is a kind of female sterilization, a method of irreversible contraception. The purpose of ligation (which may also be a tubal ligation) is to block the movement of eggs from the ovaries to the uterus after ovulation and thus prevent pregnancy. How is this operation performed, will it be a 100% guarantee against conception, and what else do you need to know about tubal ligation?

Who can do tubal ligation?

Every year, about two million decide on female sterilization — tubal ligation. This is an operation that blocks the «road» of the egg and thus prevents pregnancy.

In the US, this method is almost as popular among women as oral contraceptive pills: 30.6% use hormonal contraceptives, while 27% opt for tubal ligation.

In Russia, there are two types of indications for tubal ligation: social, at the request of a woman, and medical.

  • If desired, the operation is done for women over 35 years old with at least one child.
  • Medical indications include cases when pregnancy is dangerous for a woman or in the presence of an infectious, genetic disease that will threaten the fetus. In such cases, the age and number of children do not matter.

Before the procedure, a mandatory examination is carried out, since there are a number of contraindications to dressing. These include:

  • serious diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, kidneys, liver;
  • blood clotting disorders;
  • inflammatory diseases, tumor formations, infections of the reproductive system;
  • pronounced obesity;
  • the presence of multiple adhesions of the fallopian tubes.

What happens during the procedure?

What happens during the procedure?

Tubal ligation is most often performed using minimally invasive methods. These include laparoscopy, minilaparotomy, open laparotomy, hysteroscopy, colpotomy. The most sparing option is to use the laparotomy method (through a small puncture). Anesthesia helps you not feel anything during the procedure.

The surgeon will make one or two small incisions in the abdomen and use a long, thin device similar to a small telescope (called a laparoscope) to cut, block, tie, or clamp the fallopian tubes.

The doctor will then sew up the incisions. The whole procedure takes 30-40 minutes.

After a couple of days of stationary observation, it will be possible to go home.

Bandaging can be done in several ways. Pipes can:

  • cut and tie with a special thread;
  • block with special tapes or clips;
  • cauterize with a discharge of electric current;
  • block with small implants around which scar tissue will later form.

The choice of technique depends on the condition of the patient, her desire and the possibilities of the clinic. As with any invasive procedure, there is a possibility of infection, pain, or bleeding after this procedure.

How effective is the ligation and is it possible to “untie” the pipes?

Tubal ligation is almost 100% effective. There is only a very small risk of getting pregnant. This can happen if the tubes grow back together, which is very rare.

It is believed that tubal ligation is an extremely reliable way to prevent pregnancy. Less than 1 in 100 women who have regular unprotected intercourse become pregnant within a year after surgery. And the more time passes after the procedure, the higher the coefficient of reliability of contraception and the lower the chances of conception, since an additional scar is formed at the ligation site.

The method by which the dressing was performed affects the likelihood of pregnancy. Although all of them are good at blocking the movement of the egg through the tube, not all of them are equally effective in the long run. Those that cause the most tissue damage (tube excision) are the most consistent in terms of contraception.

Age also plays a role in the likelihood of renewed chances of pregnancy. The younger the woman at the time of the procedure, the higher the chance that the tubal patency can repair on its own, and the egg will meet with the sperm at some point.

Is it possible to «untie» the fallopian tubes if a woman changes her mind?

In some cases, it is possible to reverse the procedure to restore the patency of the fallopian tubes. But this is a major operation that requires several days in the hospital.

There is a fairly high chance that the result of tubal ligation will be irreversible. It depends on what method was used, how long ago it was, and whether the pipes are too damaged to repair.

It is important to remember that attempting to repair the fallopian tubes increases the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy compared to patients who have not previously undergone tubal surgery.

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg remains in the fallopian tube instead of being transported into the uterine cavity. It attaches itself to the wall of the pipe and grows there, threatening to burst the pipe at any moment.

This is a life-threatening condition.

Tubal ligation, health and disease: what is important to know

Tubal ligation, health and disease: what is important to know

The operation does not affect libido, does not “remove” the menstrual cycle, and, according to studies, does not affect the onset of menopause. Although in some cases it can temporarily cause a feeling of menopausal «tides».

Tubal ligation does not help in the prevention of STDs. This procedure is aimed solely at preventing pregnancy. Thanks to its presence, you can not be protected from conception, but you can not forget about infections. The best way to protect against sexually transmitted diseases is the male condom.

An additional bonus of tubal ligation is the protective effect. According to a large-scale study (BioMed Central Cancer journal), it reduces the risk of developing cancerous changes in the endometrial layer of the uterus by 42%.

Obstetrics: national guidance / Kulakov V. I., Radzinsky V. E., Savelyeva G. M. and others. // Moscow: GEOTAR-Media 2014

Tubal ligation in relation to menopausal symptoms and breast cancer risk. / Nichols HB, Baird DD, DeRoo LA, et al // Br J Cancer 2013 Oct 3 109(5)

Tubal ligation and endometrial Cancer risk: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. / Loghmani L, Saedi N, Omani-Samani R, et al. // BMC Cancer 2019 Oct 11 19(1)


What did Dr. Myasnikov say about the dangers of smartphones?


An important topic — digital amnesia against the background of the use of smartphones — was touched upon in his program «About the most important» Alexander Myasnikov.

He noted that to answer the question: how to use the phone correctly, he can only answer: no way. Because everything we do with it only harms us. Naturally, there is no need to talk about any memory. After all, before people simply had nowhere to go, how to remember information — phone numbers, a meeting place. It used to be possible to call from payphones. And people did a great job with all communications, including calls to other cities. “We are so accustomed not to think, because just a little, just look at the weather, news, dates. The brain stops thinking. Because he needs training. And when you stop training the organ, you lose it,” said Alexander Myasnikov.

Previously, the doctor said, it was recommended to get all the necessary information from books, to look for it on your own, then it was remembered forever. “Smartphones make us stupid, immobilized people. They paralyze our will, our brain, our memory and our body. And smartphones also instill in a person a lack of will when he only consumes the information offered to him, ”complained Alexander Myasnikov.

Smartphones also lead to such negative consequences as:

  • violation of posture, because we are always in an inclination;
  • visual impairment;
  • dry eyes;
  • hearing loss;
  • tunnel syndrome.

In addition, they negatively affect a person’s sleep. “It has been proven that if you look at a smartphone screen 4 hours before bedtime, your production of melatonin (sleep hormone) goes astray. Yes it is. But it is impossible to find at least one who would not look at the screen for such a time before going to bed, ”said Alexander Myasnikov.

Separately touched upon the topic of radiation from the phone. Best of all, the expert advised, use your smartphone from a distance using headphones with a wire. As part of the experiments, it was found that the peak of radiation falls on a situation where a person is trying to get through to the subscriber. It is at this moment that the most dangerous radiation, because the phone is looking for a network, adds energy for this. That is, the most dangerous situation is dialing a number and waiting for the subscriber to answer. If a person is in a place where the network catches badly, the numbers increase even more. If you keep the smartphone at a distance at this time, the radiation level will be 2-3 less.

As for the potential risk of developing brain cancer from the use of smartphones, Alexander Myasnikov said that it is almost impossible to establish this in groups of adults. Because brain tumors, including benign ones, are quite common. Plus, it is difficult to take a control group, since all modern people do not part with gadgets, that is, there is simply no one to compare the results with. But still, due to the high level of radiation, it is better to try to keep the smartphone away.



Chromosomal anomalies: what is it and how do they manifest themselves?


About 30,000 children with chromosomal abnormalities are born every year. Chromosomal diseases are usually called a group of congenital diseases that are caused by a change in the quantitative composition of chromosomes. Pathologies develop due to the loss or addition of new components. The main causes of pathologies:

  • not the onset of chromosome division;
  • developmental delay and, as a result, the loss of a chromosome;
  • polyploidy, which is an increase in the quantitative composition of chromosomes.

Consider, together with MedAboutMe, the most common diseases caused by a change in the number of chromosomes.

Down syndrome

Down syndrome

The most well-known condition associated with an increased number of chromosomes. In children with this disease, 47 chromosomes are present instead of the prescribed 46. The frequency of the birth of a child with this syndrome is 1 in 700 children.

Experts call one of the reasons for the development of Down syndrome a genetic accident. Other causes include: a violation in the process of cell division, heredity from one of the parents. Symptoms include:

  • impaired vision and hearing;
  • flat face and back of the head;
  • narrow eyes;
  • crease on the neck;
  • shorter limbs than a healthy person;
  • mental retardation;
  • weak immunity;
  • skin problems (dryness, rash, eczema);
  • propensity for obesity.

Carrying a child with the disease has a high risk of miscarriage. Pregnancy often ends at 6 weeks. Patients with this syndrome need daily correction of obvious developmental disorders.

Men are usually infertile, women have poor fertility. The approximate life expectancy of a person with Down syndrome is 55-60 years. Despite the difficulties, many adults perfectly master new professions and become experts in any field.

Edwards syndrome

Another disease associated with trisomy (an increase in the number) of the 18th chromosome. Pathology is not as common as Down syndrome. But if it develops, it poses a danger to survival. The disease develops in 1 out of 7000 cases.

The reason, as a rule, is the nondisjunction of chromosomes during development. Almost 100% of the extra chromosome is passed on to the child from the mother.

Obvious manifestations of Edwards syndrome are called:

  • mental retardation;
  • small stature, short neck;
  • ears sticking out to the sides;
  • short sternum;
  • congenital heart disease;
  • abnormal structure of the skull;
  • anomalies in the work of internal organs.

Newborns with the syndrome cannot breastfeed, breathe, or swallow on their own. Therefore, they are often connected to ventilators. As a rule, the disease is not compatible with life. Boys live for about 3 months, girls — a maximum of 10 months. About 1% of patients survive to 9-10 years.

Patau Syndrome

Patau Syndrome

A congenital disease, which is a trisomy, is rare. For every 10,000 children, only 1 child is born with a chromosomal abnormality.

The reason is the presence of another copy of chromosome 13. Most often, the chromosome transmitted by the mother does not diverge. Experts cannot name the exact cause of the development of the disease, but, as a rule, this is an accident. The syndrome is characterized by:

  • short stature;
  • defects in the development of the eye, lips, nose, ears;
  • mental retardation;
  • abnormal appearance of the skull;
  • disorders of physical development (genital organs, skeletal system, muscular, digestive).

Patau’s syndrome is incompatible with life. Newborns die during childbirth or shortly after birth. At best, the child lives up to one year. It is impossible to prevent the disease.

Klinefelter syndrome

The disease is associated with the presence of extra female sex chromosomes. The condition is quite common, occurring 1 time in every 1000 newborns. It only affects boys. The reason for the appearance is non-disjunction of chromosomes, as well as in Down syndrome. In addition, risk factors are:

  • pregnancy at a later age;
  • viral, infectious diseases of the mother;
  • defective immune system of one of the parents.

Klinefelter’s syndrome is manifested primarily by the incomplete development of the testicles, female sexual characteristics (breast growth, pubic hair, femininity), and sperm deficiency. The patients are infertile. Other signs of the syndrome:

  • speech development disorders.
  • obesity.
  • mental retardation.
  • less often — autism, depression, apathy.

Adults often experience chronic psychosis. Patients with the disease can live like other people. But risk factors for chronic disease reduce life expectancy. Despite the fact that the diseased are infertile, experts note that in 1% of 100, pregnancy is still possible.

Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome

Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome

The syndrome only affects girls and occurs in about 1 in 3,000 births. The basis of the development of the disease is a change in the number of chromosomes. The birth of a child with this syndrome is not associated with the age of the pregnant woman, as with other chromosomal abnormalities. Signs of the disease:

  • extremely low growth, up to 135 cm;
  • swelling of the lymph nodes;
  • infertility, absence of ovaries;
  • lack of female characteristics;
  • short neck;
  • spots on the skin.

Some patients may have minor mental retardation. The first line of treatment for the disease is growth stimulants and hormonal drugs. In general, experts note positive forecasts. The condition does not affect life expectancy, except for the presence of chronic inflammation.

Jacobs syndrome

The disease develops only in men. The carrier has an extra Y chromosome — this is the main reason for the development of the disease. Outwardly, it is quite difficult to distinguish a sick person from a healthy one. But especially still there. Symptoms:

  • impaired coordination of movements.
  • tall, big head.
  • slightly reduced fertility.
  • hyperactivity.

Men with the syndrome lead normal lives, have families and children. But there are some risks. For example, asthma often develops, and signs of epilepsy may appear.

MedAboutMe also recommends reading Hereditary Diseases: Possible Causes for information on gene and chromosomal abnormalities.

Down syndrome: features of the mental development of children / Kuznetsov A.P. // Scientific research 2015

Down syndrome / Grigoriev K.I., Vykhristyuk O.F., Egorenkov A.M. // Nurse 2014

Prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal pathology / Nikolaeva Yu. Z., Krivolapov O. V., Bortnovskaya N. P., Frolova A. V., Anikhimovsky I. A. // Problems of health and ecology 2005


Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in women


The thyroid gland is the most important organ of the human endocrine system. It produces thyroid hormones that affect almost all tissues of the body. These active substances are important for the full development of the vital organs of the fetus, for the growth and development of a newborn child and for the health of every adult. Thyroid hormones are responsible for regulating metabolism. Thyroid dysfunction is a serious problem. In particular, if this organ begins to produce too much thyroid hormone, hyperthyroidism develops, which leads to the appearance of characteristic signs in patients. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in women depend on the age of the patient, the degree of disruption of hormone production, and related health problems.

Subclinical form of the disease

Subclinical form of the disease

With this degree of hyperthyroidism, the level of thyroid hormones in the blood does not increase much, the disease is asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic. Among the possible symptoms of this condition in women:

  • acceleration of the heart rate;
  • development of arrhythmia;
  • apathy.

As a rule, these signs are not enough to seek medical help. The doctor may suspect the presence of hyperthyroidism by chance. The subclinical form of the disease may result in the normalization of hormonal levels or the transition of the disease to the next stage. The long course of the disease increases the risk of osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation. Therefore, elderly postmenopausal women and patients with coronary disease are advised to take measures to treat this condition.

Manifest hyperthyroidism

When manifest hyperthyroidism develops, women experience vivid symptoms of the disease:

  • body weight falls, although the appetite remains intact (eating habits do not change);
  • noticeable disturbances in the work of the heart develop;
  • mood deteriorates, there is constant anxiety and depression;
  • worried about sweating, the skin becomes warm and pink;
  • hair begins to fall out strongly and become brittle;
  • the quality of night rest is disturbed;
  • the menstrual cycle is disturbed;
  • fingers and hands tremble finely;
  • digestion is disturbed (stool becomes frequent, diarrhea is possible);
  • a goiter is formed, visually changing the shape of the neck (possible violation of swallowing and breathing);
  • worried about constant fatigue and excessive fatigue.

Hyperthyroidism in its manifest form can lead to a significant decrease in fertility and infertility. Pregnancy may end in spontaneous abortion. Previously, it was assumed that hyperthyroidism in menopausal women is initially asymptomatic, but in 2020 an article by Polish scientists (Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland) was published, which clearly demonstrated the effect of such a disease on menopausal symptoms. . In particular, an overactive thyroid gland in this population exacerbates nervousness, general weakness, and palpitations.

Atypical course

Atypical course

Sometimes hyperthyroidism in women can occur with rather atypical symptoms:

  • severe weight loss and anorexia against the background of progressive muscle weakness (makes one suspect oncology);
  • unexplained heart failure or atrial fibrillation;
  • the predominance of apathy, abnormal lethargy, depression and weakness;
  • muscle weakness in the proximal limbs.

Diagnosis of an atypical course of hyperthyroidism causes serious difficulties for doctors. However, the occurrence of any symptoms of malaise, especially if they appear constantly or regularly, requires a consultation with a doctor and a comprehensive diagnosis.

Published on 05/17/2020 09:59, updated on 09/05/2021 22:30

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Used sources

Thyroid diseases / Yakubovsky S.V. // Minsk BSMU 2011

Subclinical thyroid disease: a clinician’s perspective. / Cooper DS // Ann Intern Med 1998 129

Climacteric symptoms are related to thyroid status in euthyroid menopausal women / Slopien R., Owecki M., Slopien A. // Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2020 43

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