An endometrioid ovarian cyst is an extremely serious gynecological disease that, if left untreated, can cause infertility, as well as a number of other very dangerous complications. With this disease, a cavity neoplasm is formed on the surface of the ovaries, the shell of which consists of endometrial cells, and inside there is accumulated menstrual blood. In this article, we will talk about how to diagnose an endometrioid ovarian cyst, as well as possible treatments.
Diagnostics of the endometrioid ovarian cyst
The clinical picture of an endometrioid ovarian cyst is not specific. In addition, quite often there are no symptoms at all for a long time. In this regard, a number of additional studies are resorted to in order to make a diagnosis.
First of all, it is necessary to conduct a gynecological examination. During palpation, it is possible to detect an inactive, painful induration in the ovarian region, which has a tight elastic consistency. It is noteworthy that the neoplasm increases in size before menstruation. The most accessible method in gynecology, which allows you to confirm the diagnosis, is an ultrasound examination. Using this method, the pathological focus itself is revealed, its size and localization are assessed. In doubtful cases, magnetic resonance imaging is prescribed.
The most accurate diagnostic method is considered to be diagnostic laparoscopy followed by a biopsy and the direction of the material obtained for histology. Most patients are recommended to be tested for the presence of tumor markers.
Conservative treatment for endometrioid cysts
In the event that the ovarian cyst is small and not accompanied by severe clinical manifestations, conservative therapy may be prescribed. It implies the use of hormonal drugs, which include low-dose monophasic combined oral contraceptives, gestagens, androgen derivatives, and so on. These funds allow you to stop the growth of the pathological focus, and also contribute to its reduction in size.
You can stop the pain syndrome, if present, with the help of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antispasmodics.
Indications and technique of surgical intervention
In the event that conservative therapy does not have the expected effect, the size of the cyst exceeds 5 centimeters in diameter, there is a high risk of complications or oncological alertness, the issue of surgical intervention may be decided.
Most often, in women of reproductive age, enucleation of the neoplasm or excision of the affected part of the ovary is performed through laparoscopic or laparotomy access. Radical operations are performed in cases where there is no need to preserve reproductive function or any serious complications have arisen.
In 2019, the results of the work of scientists from the Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology named after A. D. O. Otto. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact on the ovarian reserve of the method of sclerosis of endometrioid ovarian tumors during laparoscopic interventions. As a result, it was possible to prove the effectiveness and prospects of this technique in the treatment of endometrioid ovarian tumors.
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Published on 02/11/2020 10:59 AM, updated on 04/17/2020 04:31 PM
An alternative method of surgical treatment of endometrioid ovarian tumors from the standpoint of maintaining ovarian reserve / Popov E. N., Rusina E. I., Sudakov D. S. and others. // Journal of Obstetrics and Women’s Diseases — 2019 — T.68. No. 5.
Gynecology: Textbook / B.I. Baisova and others, ed. G.M. Savelieva, V.G. Breusenko // Moscow: GEOTAR-Media — 2014