One of the variants of fibrocystic mastopathy, characterized by the growth of glandular tissue, is called mammary adenosis. This disease has a hormone-dependent nature and, from a clinical point of view, is manifested by the formation of compacted foci in the mammary gland, pathological discharge from the nipples, and so on. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, this pathological process has a favorable prognosis. Otherwise, this condition can be complicated by an inflammatory lesion of the mammary gland, its deformation, and so on. In addition, a link between adenosis and breast cancer is suggested. Timely appointment with a mammologist will help to reduce the likelihood of possible complications to a minimum. It is the specialist who will be able to choose the necessary treatment plan. You can make an appointment by phone +7 (499) 519-32-56, via the Internet or in any other way convenient for you.
Breast adenosis is a benign disease. Such mastopathy, as we have already said, is accompanied by the growth of glandular tissue, due to which compacted foci appear in the mammary gland. According to statistics, this pathological process is found in almost every third woman who is between the ages of thirty and forty. This figure is even higher among those females who suffer from various gynecological pathologies.
Interestingly, fibrocystic mastopathy with a predominance of the glandular component is often detected in girls during the formation of menstruation, as well as in women in the first three months of pregnancy. This condition is not considered pathological, since all clinical manifestations subside on their own some time after the hormonal background has stabilized.
As we have already said, at present, many scientists agree that such a disease is a predisposing factor for the development of breast cancer. It is believed that adenosis approximately five times increases the risk of its occurrence. According to statistics, with severe proliferative changes, malignancy is observed in about thirty-two percent of cases. All this makes this problem extremely relevant for medicine.
Adenosis of the mammary gland has a hormone-dependent nature. In other words, the basis of its development is an imbalance between estrogens and progesterone. Artificial termination of pregnancies, especially in the later stages, late pregnancies, refusal to breastfeed, can contribute to the occurrence of hormonal imbalance. Overweight, uncontrolled use of hormonal contraception, existing gynecological pathologies — all this contributes to the formation of fibrocystic mastopathy with a predominance of the glandular component. Depending on the area of the lesion, adenosis of the mammary gland can be focal and diffuse. With a focal variant of such a disease, a single seal is found in the tissues of the mammary gland, which has a spherical or disc-shaped shape. The diffuse variant is established when several pathological foci that do not have a clear boundary are detected at once.
There is another classification based on the histological structure of adenosis. This includes sclerosing, apocrine, ductal, microglandular, and adenomyoepithelial forms.
Fibrocystic mastopathy with a predominance of the glandular component, as we have already said, develops with an increase in estrogen levels and a decrease in progesterone. As you know, estrogens stimulate cell proliferation, while progesterone inhibits it. With a lack of progesterone, glandular epithelial cells begin to divide uncontrollably, which contributes to the formation of pathological foci.
Symptoms of adenosis of the mammary gland
Symptoms in this pathological process will vary somewhat depending on the variant in which it proceeds. In general, the clinical picture will be represented by soreness of the mammary gland, which increases in the premenstrual period, its thickening and engorgement, as well as the appearance of pathological discharge from the nipple.
The main symptom in the focal variant is a dense mobile focus, palpable in the tissues of the mammary gland, which has clear boundaries and is not soldered to the surrounding tissues. It has a lobed structure and is not accompanied by severe pain on palpation.
With a diffuse variant, the symptoms are more pronounced. There is a diffuse pain syndrome that captures the entire mammary gland. The mammary gland itself swells before menstruation, and a yellowish or colorless liquid leaves the nipple. During palpation, several compacted foci of various diameters are found, which do not have clear boundaries. Pain is also observed on palpation.
Diagnosis of the disease — why is an appointment with a mammologist necessary?
The main diagnostic methods for such a disease are mammography or ultrasound. It is imperative to assess the hormonal status. In doubtful cases, a biopsy of the affected area is prescribed, followed by the direction of the obtained material for histological examination. Only a specialist can choose the right examination plan, which is why an appointment with a mammologist is necessary.
Treatment and prevention of fibrocystic mastopathy
A diffuse variant of fibrocystic mastopathy with a predominance of the glandular component is an indication for the appointment of hormone therapy, vitamins, and homeopathic remedies. With a focal variant, they often resort to surgical intervention, during which the compacted focus is excised within healthy tissues.
The principles of prevention are reduced to the avoidance of abortion, the selection of oral contraceptives only in conjunction with a doctor, the treatment of existing gynecological pathologies, and so on.