A cyst of the cervix is ​​a widespread gynecological disease, which often does not cause any concern to a sick woman for a long time. The essence of this pathology lies in the fact that in the region of the cervical canal or the vaginal part of the cervix, a cavity neoplasm is formed, inside of which there is a mucous, bloody or some other liquid. Cystic elements can have a very different diameter — from a few millimeters to several centimeters. As a rule, this pathological process is not prone to malignant degeneration, but it can cause a number of other serious complications. A timely appointment with a gynecologist will help to avoid them in case of any complaints or for a preventive examination. The doctor will help you choose the necessary examination and tactics for treating the cyst. To do this, you just need to choose a specialist and make an appointment with him by phone +7 (499) 519-32-56​.

According to statistics, cervical cysts are found in almost every fifth woman. The highest incidence rate is observed among female representatives of reproductive age. As we have already said, this pathology, although not malignant, can lead to other serious consequences. Among the possible complications, first of all, infertility and miscarriage due to changes in the architectonics of the cervix are distinguished. In some cases, the cystic cavity can become infected with subsequent accumulation of purulent exudate inside it.

There are a large number of factors that can trigger the formation of uterine cysts. Currently, this disease is considered to have a polyetiological nature. In the first place among all causes are traumatic effects. Here we primarily mean surgical abortions and various medical and diagnostic manipulations. In addition, sometimes the formation of cystic elements is due to childbirth, especially repeated.

Another important factor is hormonal disorders. Ovarian dysfunction, problems with the hypothalamic-pituitary system, and many other endocrine disorders often lead to the development of cervical cysts. As other possible causes, inflammatory diseases from the gynecological organs, suppression of immunity, and so on are considered.

In order to better understand why a cervical cyst forms, let’s look at its classification. First of all, it is customary to distinguish endometrioid and retention variants. Both of these options are widespread among female representatives, however, they differ significantly in the mechanism of their development.

In the endometrioid variant, the appearance of a cystic cavity is due to the existing endometriosis. In other words, areas of ectopic endometrium are formed in the cervical region, which, as a result of cyclic hormonal changes, are converted into cystic elements. A distinctive feature of this option is that there is a bloody liquid inside the resulting cavity. The retention cyst of the uterus comes from a clogged cervical gland, stretching as a result of the accumulation of its own mucous secretion.

In addition, the cervical cyst is paracervical and endocervical. The most common is the endocervical form, in which the cystic element is localized in the lumen of the cervical canal. As for the paracervical form, it comes from the mucous membrane of the vaginal part of the cervix.

During the examination, both single and multiple cystic elements can be detected. As we have already said, they have a wide variety of sizes, but most often do not exceed ten millimeters in diameter.

Symptoms that occur with a cyst of the cervix

Symptoms that occur with a cyst of the cervix

In the vast majority of cases, a cervical cyst, especially if it is small, does not manifest itself for a long time. Often, a problem that has arisen is detected already when it has led to the development of any complications.

In the presence of large cavities or with multiple lesions of the cervix, complaints of discomfort or pain during intercourse may occur. This symptom is directly related to a decrease in the number of functioning cervical glands, which reduces the production of mucous secretions. In addition, sometimes the clinical picture is supplemented by an increase in the volume of vaginal discharge.

A uterine cyst in an uncomplicated course, as a rule, is not accompanied by pain. Pain appears if there is a secondary infection of the cystic cavity.

The endometrioid variant is most often characterized by acyclic bloody discharge from the vagina. Often there are complaints of too long or excessively heavy menstruation.

Diagnosis of uterine cysts — when is an appointment with a gynecologist necessary?

In order to correctly establish the diagnosis and choose the right treatment for the cyst, an appointment with a gynecologist is necessary. First of all, a thorough gynecological examination is carried out, supplemented by colposcopy or cervicoscopy. Additionally, transvaginal ultrasound, biopsy followed by histology of the obtained material are shown. In the vast majority of cases, a uterine cyst does not cause any difficulties in terms of diagnosis.

Cyst treatment and prevention of its development

Cyst treatment and prevention of its development

In the presence of a small cystic cavity, which is not accompanied by any clinical manifestations, dynamic observation is recommended. In the presence of a concomitant infection, antibiotic therapy should be carried out. In parallel, it is necessary to correct the existing hormonal disorders. Surgical treatment of the cyst is indicated if there are any complications. In this case, both minimally invasive methods and classical surgical interventions can be used.

The main method of prevention is the periodic passage of scheduled examinations by a gynecologist.

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