Cervical cyst is a fairly common problem in gynecology. The essence of this disease lies in the fact that a cavity neoplasm is formed in the cervical canal or the vaginal part of the cervix, inside which there is a mucous or hemorrhagic secret. Often this pathology occurs without any clinical manifestations. However, sometimes it is accompanied by pain and discomfort during intercourse, profuse mucous secretions, intermenstrual bleeding, and some other signs. In general, such a pathological process in itself does not pose a serious threat to the reproductive function of a woman. However, it is worth considering that it often indicates the presence of some other more serious problem, for example, inflammation. With large cystic neoplasms, deformation of the cervix is often observed.
First of all, it is worth saying that the cyst of the cervix can be retention and endometrioid. The retention form occurs if there is a blockage of the excretory duct of the cervical gland, which led to the accumulation of secretions and the expansion of the gland itself. This disease occurs in about fifteen percent of women of reproductive age. In addition, it has been noted that this form is mainly diagnosed in women who have given birth. As for the endometrioid form, it develops against the background of endometriosis, which is accompanied by damage to the vaginal part of the cervix.
In addition, the classification of this disease includes endocervical and paracervical variants. The endocervical variant is characterized by the presence of a cystic neoplasm in the lumen of the cervical canal. In the paracervical variant, the pathological focus is localized in the vaginal part of the cervix.
In such patients, both single and multiple cysts can be detected. On average, they do not exceed one centimeter in diameter. However, in some cases there are cystic cavities, the size of which reaches three or more centimeters.
The causes of the development of this disease will vary depending on the form in which it occurs. As we have already said, the retention form is characterized by blockage of the excretory ducts of the glands, called nabotovye. Such glands are located in the thickness of the epithelium of the cervical canal and are responsible for the production of mucous secretions. In the event that the excretory duct is clogged, the secret begins to accumulate in the gland itself, which gradually expands and turns into a cystic cavity.
A variety of conditions, including age-related changes, can contribute to the occurrence of a retention cyst. The existing pseudo-erosion is also considered as a predisposing factor. Another common cause is an inflammatory process localized in the cervical canal and leading to an increase in edema and increased secretion. In some cases, there is a change in the chemical composition of the produced secret, due to which it acquires a thicker and more viscous consistency. Sometimes this disease develops after various medical interventions, for example, with laser coagulation of any pathological lesions located in the cervix.
Endometrioid cyst, as we have said, is a consequence of endometriosis. Factors such as hereditary predisposition, artificial termination of pregnancy, hormonal disorders, traumatic gynecological manipulations, such as diagnostic curettage, and so on, can contribute to the formation of endometriosis. An important distinguishing feature is that the resulting cystic cavity is usually filled with hemorrhagic contents.
Symptoms that occur with a cyst of the cervix
Earlier we have already said that this pathological process is often not accompanied by any symptoms for a long time. The appearance of subjective sensations is most often due to secondary infection or the growth of a pathological focus.
With the retention form, the symptoms can vary significantly in each individual patient. Most often, there are complaints of soreness and discomfort during intercourse, which is associated with a decrease in the amount of mucous secretion secreted by the cervical glands. The opposite situation can also be observed, characterized by an increase in the volume of mucous secretions, which, with secondary infection, acquire a purulent character and an unpleasant odor.
The symptoms of the endometrioid form are also different. Often the patient indicates the presence of intermenstrual bleeding. In some cases, the clinical picture is supplemented by spotting spotting immediately after sexual contact. A woman indicates pain in the lower abdomen, in the genital area, especially after intercourse. Most often, the resulting pain syndrome is directly related to menstruation.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Such a disease, as a rule, does not cause any difficulties in terms of diagnosis. You can detect pathological changes during a gynecological examination. Additionally, colposcopy, transvaginal ultrasound, or hysteroscopy may be prescribed.
The treatment regimen for a cervical cyst is selected individually. With a small size of the cystic cavity, observational tactics are most often recommended. However, if the pathological focus is large or secondary infection has occurred, surgical intervention should be performed, which implies its opening and coagulation. Additionally, physiotherapy procedures, hormonal therapy, and so on can be prescribed.
Prevention of cervical cyst development
The main methods of prevention are the timely detection and treatment of those diseases that can lead to the appearance of cysts, as well as the careful conduct of various gynecological procedures.
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