Prostate cancer is a problem for a large number of men around the world. The essence of this disease is the formation of a malignant tumor in the tissues of the prostate, prone to germination in surrounding tissues and metastasis. Most often, this pathology is detected in men older than sixty years. However, in recent years, an increasing number of cases have been diagnosed among younger patients. In this article, we will talk about the diagnosis of prostate cancer, as well as consider its treatment.
Principles of diagnosis of prostate cancer
Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is a rather difficult task, since this disease in the vast majority of cases has an asymptomatic course for a long time.
It is possible to suspect a malignant lesion of the prostate gland on the basis of the following symptoms:
- Increased urge to urinate;
- Difficulty starting micturition;
- Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
- Intermittency and weakening of the urine stream;
- Pain during urination and ejaculation;
- erection problems;
- Weakness and malaise, causeless weight loss.
The primary diagnostic method for suspected prostate cancer is a digital rectal examination, during which the density and size of the prostate gland, the presence of seals, and so on are evaluated.
The next step is to study the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA). An increase in this indicator makes it possible to suspect a malignant process in the prostate gland. In 2012, scientists from the St. Petersburg State Medical University. acad. I.P. Pavlova published a work, according to the results of which it was found that an increase in PSA levels to 100 ng / ml or more in most cases indicates metastatic prostate cancer. However, it must be remembered that this indicator can also increase with benign diseases of the prostate gland.
In addition, the examination plan is necessarily supplemented by transabdominal or transrectal ultrasound. Under the control of ultrasound, a transrectal biopsy of the prostate gland should be performed, followed by the direction of the obtained material for histological examination.
In doubtful cases, resort to the help of magnetic resonance or computed tomography.
Treatment for prostate cancer
The first line of treatment for prostate cancer is surgery. There are several operational techniques, the choice of one of them is carried out individually.
Some patients undergo minimally invasive interventions, such as the introduction of radioactive implants into the prostate tissue. However, minimally invasive methods are appropriate only with a low oncological risk, as well as when it is impossible to remove the prostate for one reason or another.
The main method of surgical intervention for prostate cancer is still its radical removal.
In addition to surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be prescribed.
Posted on 27.04.2021 08:55
Comprehensive analysis of prognostic factors in patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer / Vorobyov N.V. — 2009
Diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer / Al-Shukri S.Kh., Korneev I.A., Aloyan K.A. and etc. // Urological statements — 2012 — #4