According to statistics, every third woman in the world has experienced such a disease as cystitis — inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder. The main cause of cystitis is a bacterial infection.
Cystitis in women: causes
Cystitis in women is acute or chronic recurrent. The main causative agent of cystitis are microbes that have penetrated into the bladder for one reason or another. Most often, the disease is caused by bacteria — E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus aureus. Less often — a virus or any chemical effects. In itself, hypothermia is not the root cause of cystitis. Exposure to cold can only provoke the development of a dormant infection in the body, causing an exacerbation.
Cystitis is one of the most frequent female diseases and practically does not occur in men. This is due to the anatomical features of the structure of the female genitourinary system. A very short, wide entrance to the urethra and the close location of the rectum allow E. coli to easily enter the urethra, and then into the bladder. With inflammation, bacteria begin to multiply actively, damaging the mucous membrane of the bladder.
By the way, during pregnancy, symptoms similar to cystitis often occur. Although in fact the cause may not be true cystitis at all, but the pressure of the fetus on the woman’s bladder.
The main symptoms of cystitis
At the initial stage, the disease is characterized by frequent urination, uncomfortable (pain, heaviness) sensations in the lower abdomen. In the future, if there is no treatment for cystitis, the situation can only get worse. There may be cramps during emptying of the bladder, as well as impurities of pus or blood in the urine. In this case, we are talking, as a rule, about hemorrhagic cystitis (the final stages of the disease).
By the way, today pharmacies sell special diagnostic strips that allow you to detect cystitis in women at home. The accuracy of such multi-indicator rapid tests is quite high. If leukocytes are present in the urine, the reagent darkens upon entering into a chemical reaction. However, only a doctor can make a definitive diagnosis. To do this, you need to pass a urine test and undergo an ultrasound examination (ultrasound).
Drug treatment of cystitis
If symptoms of cystitis appear, you should consult a urologist. With improper treatment, acute cystitis can go into a chronic phase, and also lead to complications and cause pyelonephritis — inflammation of the kidney. In this case, we are talking about an ascending infection that penetrates the kidney through the ureters. Exacerbation of cystitis in women often occurs in the summer season.
Many women, when cystitis appears, apply a heating pad to the lower abdomen, take a hot bath, etc. However, it is worth remembering that warming procedures for cystitis (severe bacteriuria) are contraindicated. This can only worsen the condition and increase inflammation.
To date, there is a single standard for the treatment of cystitis — taking antibiotics and uroseptics. For these purposes, fosfomycin is used. In Russia, a similar drug is sold in pharmacies under the name Monural (in the form of powder or tablets). As a rule, a single dose of the drug on the first day can eliminate the symptoms of cystitis.
With cystitis, it is recommended to drink more (about two liters) of plain water, which will allow bacteria and decay products to be better flushed out of the bladder. Cranberry juice also has a beneficial effect. With sufficient consumption, the ingredients in this wonderful drink can prevent the development of symptoms of cystitis. This is a great way not only to prevent, but also to treat cystitis.
If an acute condition of cystitis occurs, manifested by excruciating pain, an antibiotic of the fosfomycin series can be taken. However, it is impossible to continue self-treatment of cystitis with uroantiseptics, since the disease can go into a chronic phase.
In any case, even if the pain has gone, you need to see a doctor and undergo an examination, since congenital anomalies (for example, structural defects, etc.) are possible. In addition to the infectious component, there may be morphological problems that are a provoking factor for the occurrence of cystitis. Accordingly, the approach to treatment will be different.
By the way, long-term studies of the American Association of Gynecologists have shown that wearing thongs increases the risk of cystitis.
What foods are prohibited for cystitis?
It is known that certain foods can aggravate the course of cystitis, increasing the symptoms of the disease, namely:
- Sour fruits with a high concentration of fruit acid
For example, pineapple, lemon, apples. The use of these products for cystitis leads to acidification of the urine and even more irritation of the mucosa. The result is more frequent and painful urination.
As you know, sweet foods increase the concentration of glucose in the urine, which contributes to the increased reproduction of bacteria. Since sugar is a breeding ground for microbes, they begin to actively multiply and release toxic substances, irritating the mucous membrane of the bladder.
Alcoholic drinks have an effect on the central mechanisms (the brain) and over time cause dehydration of the body. As a result, urine becomes more concentrated. The action of concentrated urine (like uric acid) at the moment when the barrier function of the bladder mucosa is impaired causes more irritation of the bladder walls. As a result, pain increases and urination becomes more frequent.
By the way, for the prevention of cystitis, one should, among other things, observe the rules of personal hygiene. You need to regularly wash yourself under running water (not in the bath). Movements should be directed in one direction — from the entrance to the urethra to the rectum, and not vice versa. Otherwise, infection may occur.
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Urology / Lopatkin N.A., Kamalov A.A., Apolikhin O.I. and etc. — 2012
Comparative evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of furamag and norbactin in the treatment of acute cystitis in women / Davidov M.I., Mityagin P.N., Maksyutova A.S. // Urology — 2009 — #6