A breast cyst is a fairly common pathological condition in which a cavity formation containing fluid inside is formed in the tissues of the mammary gland. The number of such neoplasms may be different for each individual patient. At its core, this disease is one of the most common types of mastopathy. The prognosis for this pathology directly depends on the size of the cavities, their number and individual characteristics of the organism. In some cases, even after surgery, there is a risk of recurrence. In addition, such a condition in some cases refers to potentially malignant.

Statistics give us extremely disappointing figures. According to the latest data, about forty percent of women suffer from one or another type of mastopathy. As we have already said, a cyst is a cavity filled with liquid contents. Its dimensions can range from a few millimeters to six or more centimeters in diameter. As an example, we can say that in about twenty-five percent of women suffering from diffuse nodular mastopathy, numerous cystic neoplasms are detected, often localized in both mammary glands at once.

It is worth noting that the greatest danger is represented by large cysts of the mammary gland. Most often they are diagnosed in women after thirty-five years, while small cystic cavities can be detected at an earlier age. According to various data, the risk of malignant degeneration in this pathological process ranges from one to thirty percent. The least chance of malignancy is if the neoplasm does not increase in size over time. If the rate of cell proliferation is moderate, the risk is about three percent. With a pronounced growth of the epithelium, this figure already grows to twenty-five percent or more. In addition, this disease is often complicated by a secondary purulent inflammatory reaction.

The basis of the occurrence of such a disease is primarily an increased level of estrogen in the body. Many factors can contribute to this. Often, a breast cyst develops in those women who have had no pregnancies and childbirth up to thirty years, menstrual function has been established too sooner or later, artificial interruptions of pregnancies have been performed, or breastfeeding has been refused. Another important point is the various problems of the endocrine system. Much more often this pathological process is faced by women suffering from a variety of inflammatory pathologies from the reproductive system.

Other predisposing factors for the formation of this disease include diseases of the nervous and digestive systems. Existing metabolic problems also play a certain role. It has been noticed that very often cystic neoplasms in the mammary gland are combined with other hyperplastic diseases, especially from the side of the uterus. An example is glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium.

First of all, the classification of this pathology includes its single-chamber and multi-chamber variants. With a single-chamber variant, an isolated cystic neoplasm occurs, which has one solid cavity. The multi-chamber variant is established if the formation of one cyst is first noted, after which new elements appear next to it, and then they merge with each other.

In addition, there are three degrees that are distinguished on the basis of the risk of malignant degeneration. At the first degree, proliferative processes are not detected. The second degree is characterized by the presence of proliferation, but the cells are not atypical. The third degree implies the presence of cellular atypia, which indicates a high probability of malignancy.

Symptoms of a breast cyst

Symptoms of a breast cyst

Often, cystic neoplasms that are small in size are not accompanied by any symptoms and are discovered by chance. With a large cavity, it can be detected even with the help of palpation. During palpation, a densely elastic node with clear contours is determined.

Sometimes, in parallel, symptoms such as soreness and heaviness in the mammary gland, its increase in size, as well as increased sensitivity can be noted. Most often, these complaints occur in women in the premenstrual period, and by the beginning of menstruation they subside. In rare cases, characteristic clinical manifestations are constantly present.

Approximately six percent of women indicate that serous or bloody fluid is secreted from the nipple. A large neoplasm often leads to external deformity of the breast. Earlier, we have already said that in some cases a secondary inflammatory process can join, due to which general intoxication symptoms occur, pain increases, hyperemia and edema increase.

Diagnosis and treatment of the disease

Diagnosis and treatment of the disease

Diagnosis of this disease begins with a thorough palpation of the breast. Confirmation of the diagnosis is carried out using ultrasound. The appointment of pneumocystography is also shown. It is mandatory to carry out a fine-needle biopsy followed by a cytological examination of the obtained material.

Of the conservative measures for the treatment of breast cysts, hormonal and homeopathic remedies, as well as vitamin therapy, are used. If necessary, the treatment plan is supplemented with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Some types of physiotherapy procedures have also proven themselves well. However, the most effective is the method that implies a puncture followed by pumping out the fluid and the introduction of obliterating agents. Sometimes it is not possible to do without surgical intervention.

Prevention of the development of breast cysts

The principles of prevention come down to avoiding abortions, timely treatment of existing inflammatory pathologies from the gynecological organs, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and so on.

Published on 12/13/2018 11:46 AM, updated on 04/17/2020 04:51 PM

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Used sources

Clinical surgery. national guides. / Ed. V.S. Savelyeva, A.I. Kiriyenko 2013

Natural non-hormonal preparations in the prevention and complex therapy of fibrocystic disease of the mammary glands / Magomethanova D.M., Zaidieva Z.S., Bogdanova G.S. // Medical advice 2013 #3-1

Method for predicting «Small» forms of breast cancer against the background of fibrocystic disease / Velichko S.A., Slonimskaya E.M., Frolova I.G., Bukharin D.G., Doroshenko A.V. // Bulletin of Siberian Medicine 2017 T. 16 No. 1

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