The normal color of the gums is pale pink, and a change in this color can be a symptom of disease. For example, redness is a classic symptom of inflammation. But how to understand the cause of pale gums? Dentists say that this can also be a manifestation of certain ailments, such as anemia, or accompany some physiological changes in the body — often pale gums form in women with menopause. MedAboutMe learned about the main causes of pale gums, alarming symptoms, treatment and prevention.

Anemia as the cause

The tactics of treatment and the number of symptoms depend on the cause of the pallor of the gums. At the examination, the dentist, first of all, will give a referral to the therapist in order to exclude anemia.

Anemia is a collective term characterized by a low content of hemoglobin in the blood, when the tissues do not receive the necessary amount of oxygen, due to which the skin and mucous membranes become pale.

Anemia is characterized by a number of other symptoms:

  • increased fatigue and decreased performance;
  • erratic breathing;
  • headache;
  • cardiopalmus.

In clinical practice, many types of anemia can be distinguished, the classification of which is based on the deficiency of the substance that provoked this condition. Most often it is a lack of vitamin B12, iron.

Doctors identify several predisposing factors that can cause anemia:

  • heavy menstruation in women;
  • pregnancy, especially if a woman refuses to take additional vitamins and iron preparations or pregnancies follow one after another;
  • diseases of the liver, spleen and other internal organs;
  • hormonal imbalance;
  • bleeding in the digestive tract, peptic ulcers;
  • taking certain drugs or certain treatments—chemotherapy.

Anemia requires treatment and an integrated approach to the problem. Most often, patients are recommended to correct nutrition, take additional vitamins and minerals, as well as eliminate all predisposing causes and diseases. Usually, several specialists are involved in the treatment of anemia at once.

Symptoms of leukoplakia

Symptoms of leukoplakia

Leukoplakia is a lesion of the mucous membranes, characterized by the appearance of keratinization. Such changes can be traced in the oral cavity. Symptoms are reduced to the formation of homogeneous thin white spots on the surface of the gums and throughout the oral mucosa.

Dentists cannot yet accurately determine the cause of such changes, but the following predisposing and provoking factors are clearly visible:

  • bad habits: for example, smoking, alcohol abuse, the habit of eating everything hot, literally boiling;
  • poor oral hygiene;
  • there is a connection with some diseases of the internal organs: gastritis with high acidity, for example.

More often, the symptoms of leukoplakia do not cause any inconvenience, and the lesion itself is not dangerous. But with prolonged action of irritating factors, there is a risk of degeneration into malignant changes.


Menopause is a period in the life of every woman, characterized by changes in the hormonal background and the extinction of the functions of the reproductive system. Physiological changes, namely changes in the hormonal background, can cause a failure in the blood supply to the tissues of the oral cavity, due to which the gums become pale.

Menopause can be considered as a powerful predisposing factor for the development of some dangerous diseases of the oral cavity. For example, periodontal disease occurs due to a violation of trophism in the gum tissue.

To reduce the risk of developing oral pathologies in women during menopause, dentists and doctors of other practices recommend hormone replacement therapy.

Taking hormonal drugs in tandem with minerals reduces the risk of hip fracture and periodontal disease. And, as you know, these are one of the main pathologies that women need to be wary of during menopause.

When is a dentist consultation needed?

Discoloration of the gums, their pallor is a symptom that requires attention. Only a dentist, after examining and collecting complaints, can make a preliminary diagnosis, prescribe a study or consult other specialists, which will help in making the correct diagnosis.

Of course, most often the cause of pale gums are relatively harmless causes that are easy to treat, but this does not preclude the need to consult a specialist and conduct some types of research. Pathologies such as periodontal disease and even some types of anemia can pose a threat to the health of patients.

Based on this, dentists recommend paying attention to the condition of not only the teeth, but also the gums. And when anxiety symptoms appear, seek help immediately. Warning symptoms include:

  • the appearance of bleeding gums while brushing your teeth or eating;
  • the appearance of edema and increased sensitivity of the gums;
  • the formation of bad breath;
  • exposure of the necks of the teeth and the appearance of sensitivity of the teeth when eating cold food;
  • the appearance of a taste in the mouth.

Prevention of complications

Prevention of complications

At the appointment, the doctor can give a number of tips that will help prevent complications. The main rule is to follow the principles of personal hygiene and proper care of the gums and teeth:

  • brushing your teeth for at least 3 minutes, daily, twice a day;
  • the use of additional hygiene care products: dental floss, irrigators;
  • nutrition correction: reducing the amount of potentially dangerous foods in the diet, that is, sweets, fast food, as well as refined food and convenience foods;
  • regular examinations in the dentist’s chair, oral hygiene and recommended preventive procedures;
  • rejection of bad habits, correction of their pathological effects.

If we talk about the prevention of anemia, the correction of the condition and the risk of menopause, then general practitioners can give recommendations. And these tips are personal.

Normal gum color can vary from person to person. But when they become pale, literally exsanguinated, this is a symptom that requires attention. The first doctor to be consulted is a dentist, who, after examining and analyzing the data obtained, can give appropriate advice and recommend consultations of other specialists.

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Dentists / Ed. Bazhanova N.N. 2008

Propaedeutics of internal diseases / Mukhin N.A., Moiseev V.S. 2008

Endocrinology / Ed. Dedova I.I., Melnichenko G.A. 2013