Malignant breast tumors in women occupy a leading position in oncology. Breast cancer has become younger today, and occurs among women even 20-30 years old, due to the influence of external and internal pathogenic factors on the gland: imbalance of hormones, diseases, unfavorable ecology, radiation exposure. One of the manifestations will be skin changes, thickening inside the gland, discharge from the nipple. For the purpose of prevention, regular visits to the doctor and breast self-examination are necessary.

The role of hormones in tumor genesis

The role of hormones in tumor genesis

A breast cancer tumor is malignant, arising from glandular tissues, characterized by aggressive growth, active metastasis and a rapid onset of an unfavorable outcome without proper therapy. Most often, it occurs as a result of sharp fluctuations in hormones during menopause, when the balance of gestagens and estrogens is disturbed. These hormones play a key role in the development of cancer, and their excess is a favorable background for the start of the process. Also affected are abortions, in which hormones dramatically change their concentrations, diseases of the genitals, previously existing inflammatory processes in the chest, and unfavorable ecology. Of particular importance are hereditary factors. Create a favorable background for the further development of cancer mastopathy, benign breast tumors and intraductal papillomatosis.

Suspicious symptoms: skin changes, breast nodes

If breast cancer is suspected, the symptoms may vary depending on the type of tumor growth. In the nodular form, typical clinical manifestations, first of all, reveal a seal up to 5 cm or more in size. With a diffuse form, the tumor does not have clear boundaries, spreading over the gland and skin. There may be chest pain, the skin becomes bright red, the temperature rises, and in the armored form, dense crusts may form. Sometimes cancer begins with the discovery of metastases in the lymph nodes on the side of the affected breast, and the tumor cannot be identified.

Signs of cancer of the gland:

  • A separate nodule is found in the chest during examination, not painful on palpation, motionless and uneven, tightly fixed to the skin or other tissues, up to 5 cm in size or more.
  • The surface of the skin above the node is retracted, may wrinkle, gather into a fold, forms an orange peel with edema over the tumor area, there is a deformity of the nipple
  • The tumor can grow into the skin with formations in the form of a «cauliflower» of red or purple color. The surface of the skin may be inflamed, bleeding or suppurating.
  • Lymph nodes in the armpits increase, but are not painful, they are dense and large, merge and form uneven formations. On the side of the affected chest, there may be swelling of the arm due to stagnation of lymph in the capillaries.
  • Weight loss, appetite and sleep disorders, general weakness and anemia are also possible.

Diagnosis of the tumor: examination of the breast and nipple

It is important to know how to detect breast cancer in its early stages. First of all, it is necessary to consult a doctor with an examination of the nipple, breast skin and adjacent tissues. Then mammography, and for young women — breast ultrasound. When a tumor is detected, a biopsy of the tumor tissue is necessary with its examination under a microscope. An additional examination is carried out when the node is removed and the type of tumor is clarified. Sometimes ductography will be shown — an x-ray of the chest with the introduction of a contrast agent into the ducts. During the examination, it is necessary to identify special signs of breast cancer on ultrasound. This is especially important at a young age or in the presence of X-ray negative tumors.

Cancer Prevention: Breast Examination at Home

Cancer Prevention: Breast Examination at Home

To prevent tumor lesions of the breast, it is necessary to regularly examine the gland at home. To do this, you need to examine and feel the tissues in daylight, completely naked to the waist. Diagnosis is performed standing in front of a mirror and then lying on your back. With regular hygiene procedures in the shower, it is possible to easily feel the gland quickly as a prevention of neoplasms.

You need to start by examining the linen for spots and wetting in the projection of the nipple, if this is not a nursing mother and not a pregnant woman. Their breast discharge is quite acceptable, while for other women it is a sign of problems. Prevention of dangerous breast changes is a careful examination of the nipple and areola for changes in shape and color, the appearance of ulcerative and vesicular rashes, peeling or itching. After a targeted examination of the nipple area, the skin on the entire breast is also meticulously examined, including in the area of ​​the skin fold under the gland. If the breast is large, the examination is carried out in the mirror.

Stages of examination: shape, discharge from the chest

In order to prevent oncology, the breast examination is carried out while standing, lowering the arms, and then raising them, carefully comparing the left and right sides. The absence of asymmetry and skin changes, irregularities is important. Then you need an examination on the back, placing a pillow in the area of ​​​​the shoulder blade and placing a hand behind the head. With circular movements of the second hand from the nipple to the sides, slightly pushing the skin, the gland is probed to the axillary region. Normally, there are no seals and nodes in the chest. It is important to examine both breasts, whether there are any discharges from them, whether they are the same in shape and size, whether they move well if you raise your hands up. At the end of the examination, you need to lightly press on the nipple and areola, whether discharge has appeared in the ducts. They are not always plentiful and stain the linen, they can be extremely minor. However, abrupt discharge is an alarming sign.

Oncology prevention does not end there, you need to visit a mammologist regularly, even if there are no complaints. For women after 40 years of age, mammography is indicated for the purpose of a screening study. Younger women undergo an ultrasound examination of the breast. The identification of any alarming signs is an occasion for a more in-depth examination, especially against the background of the existing unfavorable heredity.

Published on 05/16/2018 16:07, updated on 12/13/2019 13:22

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Used sources

Oncology / Ed. Chissova V.I., Daryalova S.L. 2007

Multicentric breast cancer: clinical diagnosis, treatment / Kerimov R.A., Kochoyan T.M., Vorotnikov I.K., Ivanov V.M., Khailenko V.A., Komov D.V., Kerimova D.R., Kovalenko I.P. // Practical medicine 2005 №2(11)

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