According to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, gynecological diseases affect almost 60% of women. At the same time, half of the cases of the development of diseases could have been avoided in the case of a timely visit to a specialist. What signs of the disease indicate that you need to go to the doctor, MedAboutMe will tell.
Diagnosis of gynecological diseases: a bit of history
“A woman has the right to be late for a meeting with any person except the king and her doctor,” the famous surgeon, professor at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Paris, Joseph Claude Anhelm Recamier, said something like this. It was he who, at the beginning of the last century, created a device without which even today no examination by a gynecologist can pass — a vaginal mirror. It is generally accepted that from this very moment the diagnosis of women’s diseases has become more effective. Thanks to the vaginal mirror, it has become much easier to prevent dangerous diseases.
Let’s say right away: even with annual examinations and conscientious implementation of all the doctor’s instructions, a woman cannot be one hundred percent protected from gynecological ailments. Sexual infections, neoplasms, hormonal imbalances — the list of problems can be continued. But do not despair. Fortunately, there are also enough warning signs of the development of a particular disease. It is important to notice the signs of the disease in time, no matter how insignificant they may seem. The position of some women, “Just think, the lower abdomen hurt a little, it’s okay” can lead to serious health problems. If timely treatment is not started, the disease can become chronic.
Today we list the symptoms of the disease, which in no case should be ignored.
Menstrual pain: normal or signs of illness?
Do menstrual days turn into torture every time, accompanied by the absorption of a huge amount of pain pills? This should be reported to the doctor. Severe pain may be the result of a chronic inflammation process. The culprits of such discomfort, as a rule, are endometrial polyps, the development of endometriosis and the formation of adhesions in the peritoneum.
In addition, menstrual pain may indicate the development of a disease such as adenomyosis (aka endometriosis), characterized by the germination of the endometrium in the muscle tissue of the uterus. Getting into unusual conditions, endometrial cells continue their vital activity in the usual mode, and, accordingly, during menstruation they swell and bleed, causing pain.
The growth of the endometrium can provoke:
- frequent stress;
- excessive physical stress;
- intense ultraviolet irradiation.
In this case, even a simple gynecological examination can help. The specialist will check the position and size of the uterus and its appendages, as well as the presence of pathological changes. This will require ultrasound and hysteroscopy.
The normal length of the menstrual cycle is 21 to 33 days. A long delay (more than two weeks) should be a reason to visit a specialist. However, a doctor’s consultation is desirable for any changes in the menstrual cycle. It is possible that this is a temporary phenomenon due to the influence of some external factors (stress, long flight and change of time zone) and does not require medical intervention.
But, on the other hand, menstrual irregularities can indicate the development of a serious illness, for example, polycystic ovaries. By the way, this disease provokes infertility. And this is just the tip of the iceberg — polycystic ovaries can cause hormonal and metabolic disorders that increase the likelihood of developing endometrial hyperplasia, cancer, diabetes and obesity.
In some cases, the cause of the menstrual cycle becomes an infection in the organs of the urinary system. Therefore, you should make an appointment not only with a gynecologist, but also with a urologist.
Symptoms of the disease: bleeding not associated with menstruation
In most cases, the cause of minor spotting in the middle of the cycle is cervical erosion. In addition, the appearance of uterine bleeding can be triggered by a hormonal imbalance. This is especially true after forty years, when the restructuring of the endocrine system begins, ovulation disappears and endometrial tissue thickens. These are normal age changes.
However, in some cases, untimely bleeding may indicate the development of pathological processes in the tissues of the uterus. Therefore, regular examinations by a gynecologist in this case are required.
Lower abdominal pain
Some women endure aching pains in the lower abdomen for years. Meanwhile, they may indicate signs of an inflammatory disease in the area of the uterus, ovaries or fallopian tubes. The first reason is an ovarian cyst, which can compress blood vessels and nerve endings, causing pain in the affected ovary. Approximately the same principle of development of fibroids — growing, it puts pressure on neighboring organs. With this disease, almost the entire lower abdomen hurts.
The culprit for the appearance of discomfort can be endometriosis, which provokes aching pains that increase during menstruation. In no case do not try to eliminate the symptoms of the disease with a heating pad. In the case of regular pain, a bath and even a hot bath are contraindicated.
The appearance of unusual secretions
Minor discharge without color and odor is considered normal. But if their nature changes dramatically, and even pain appears, you should be wary. For example, abundant yellow discharge, combined with painful sensations, can be symptoms of an infectious disease — adnexitis or salpingitis. Yellow-green and unpleasantly smelling can indicate the presence of genital infections, and cheesy white ones can indicate a fungal infection. The most dangerous discharge is watery with an admixture of blood. They may indicate the development of cancer.
In some cases, the color and smell of discharge can be affected by taking hormonal drugs. Therefore, if you have recently had to take such medications, you should also inform your doctor about this.
Obstetrics / Ed. Savelieva G.M. — 2000
Propaedeutics of internal diseases / Mukhin N.A., Moiseev V.S. — 2008