Mastopathy is a pathological process that has a benign course. It is characterized by morphological changes in the structure of the mammary gland, which are based on a violation of the ratio between epithelial and connective tissue components. Clinically, this disease is manifested by the formation of compaction foci of various sizes inside the mammary gland.

The classification of mastopathy includes two main options: diffuse and nodular. In this article, we will talk in more detail about the diffuse form of this disease.

Diffuse mastopathy is a pathology manifested by the appearance of multiple small nodules or cysts in the mammary gland. Such a disease, as a rule, is considered as an initial stage, which can later degenerate into a nodular form. The prevalence of this disease among females is very high. According to various sources, from thirty to forty-five percent of women of reproductive age suffer from such a problem. At the same time, after forty-five years, the incidence rate increases significantly.

Mastopathy is considered a polyetiological disease. This suggests that a combination of many factors plays a role in its development. The first of these is hereditary predisposition. If close relatives had a similar pathology, the likelihood of its occurrence in subsequent generations is very high. In addition, predisposing factors include the lack of a full-fledged intimate life, late pregnancies, abortions and various inflammatory processes on the part of gynecological organs. An interesting point is that in those women who have artificially terminated their pregnancy three or more times, the likelihood of diffuse mastopathy increases by more than seven times.

In the event that a woman quickly refused to breastfeed a child, suffered exposure to traumatic factors on the mammary gland, or was treated for infertility, the risk of developing this pathology in her also increases significantly. Bad habits, overweight, chronic somatic diseases, living in an unfavorable environmental environment, frequent stress — all these factors can serve as an impetus for the development of morphological changes in the structure of the mammary gland. Another important point is hypothyroidism. According to statistics, females with low levels of thyroid hormones are almost four times more likely to experience mastopathy.

The basis of the pathogenesis of mastopathy is an imbalance in the body between estrogen and progesterone. More specifically, in this disease there is a significant increase in estrogen levels with a simultaneous decrease in the amount of progesterone. It is this moment that is the impetus for the pathological growth of tissues. All of the above factors contribute to hormonal imbalance.

Diffuse mastopathy is divided into several options:

  • Variant with a predominance of the glandular component;
  • Option with a predominance of the fibrous component;
  • Option with a predominance of the cystic component;
  • Fibrocystic variant.

Symptoms of diffuse mastopathy

Symptoms of diffuse mastopathy

As a rule, the clinical picture in this disease is in direct connection with the phases of the menstrual cycle. At the beginning of the development of this pathological process, the most pronounced symptoms are present in the middle or in the second half. The main complaint is pain, which is aggravated by palpation. The nature of the pain can be very different — from moderate pulling to stabbing or arching. Often the pain syndrome radiates to other parts of the body, such as the back.

Without fail, symptoms such as engorgement and swelling of the mammary gland, as well as the appearance of its hypersensitivity, are noted. An important diagnostic sign is the detection of fine-grained dense structures during palpation. As we have already said, such structures can be represented by nodules, strands or cysts. In some cases, when pressing on the nipple, a clear or colostrum-like liquid is released from it.

As the pathological process progresses, the nature of the above symptoms changes. They begin to be present constantly, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle. During this period, the pain syndrome can become even more intense, due to which various neurological disorders often join.

Earlier, we have already said that the development of this pathology is based on a change in the hormonal background. As a result, the clinical picture can be supplemented by various disorders of the menstrual cycle, for example, a delay in menstruation. In addition, in conjunction with mastopathy, other disorders in the organs of the reproductive system are often formed, for example, polycystic ovaries.

Diagnostics and treatment of mastopathy

Diagnostics and treatment of mastopathy

Initially, mastopathy is diagnosed on the basis of a palpatory examination of the mammary gland. However, it is imperative to resort to the help of additional research methods. These include ultrasound diagnostics or mammography. According to the indications, magnetic resonance imaging and a biopsy of the breast can be performed, followed by a histological examination.

The treatment of this disease consists of the appointment of vitamin complexes, herbal remedies and homeopathic remedies. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to the correction of hormonal levels. For this purpose, combined oral contraceptives or other similar drugs are used.

Prevention of diffuse mastopathy

The principles of prevention come down to maintaining a normal level of sexual activity, avoiding artificial abortions, giving up bad habits and timely detection of hormonal disorders in the body.

Clinical surgery. national guides. / Ed. V.S. Savelyeva, A.I. Kiriyenko 2013

Mastopathy: pathogenesis and the possibility of correction / Musina E.V., Kogan I.Yu. // obstetrics and gynecology 2016 ten

Hormonal therapy for diffuse mastopathy / Vysotskaya I. V., Letyagin V. P., Levkina N. V. // Tumors of the female reproductive system 2014 3