Vaginal discharge is the main indicator of a woman’s reproductive capacity. Their volume, consistency, and color depend on factors such as the phase of the menstrual cycle and the state of the microflora. In this article, we will tell you when women have yellow discharge, why are they dangerous and how to deal with it?
When is discharge considered normal?
The main function of the mucus from the cervical canal is to moisten the inner surface of the vagina, cleanse, protect against infections, and also ensure the movement of the sperm through the female genital tract. It consists of leukocytes, dead epithelial cells and other microorganisms that live in the vaginal area (bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, peptostreptococci, clostridia and others). The color, volume and structure of secretions can change depending on the phases of the cycle:
the beginning of the menstrual cycle, the so-called «dry days», is characterized by a small amount of secreted cervical mucus. The secretions are mostly homogeneous in structure and transparent, whitish or with a slight yellowness;
before ovulation, there is an increase in the volume of secreted mucus, which becomes thicker and has a transparent or cloudy color, leaves traces of white or yellowish color on the linen;
The maximum secretion of cervical mucus falls on the period of ovulation itself. According to the structure, the discharges are viscous and watery, the color is transparent. This composition of the cervical mucus is the best way to promote the promotion of the sperm, which provides a greater likelihood of conception with unprotected proximity;
in the last days (after ovulation), the discharge in women becomes scarce, has a whitish or yellowish color and a thick structure.
A light yellow vaginal discharge is considered normal at any stage of the menstrual cycle. However, their darkening, accompanied by any feeling of discomfort, indicates the appearance of an infection or inflammatory processes.
Vaginal itching: alarming symptoms
Mucous yellow discharge should be a serious reason for contacting a gynecologist and conducting a medical examination if they are accompanied by the appearance of:
- sensations of itching in the vagina;
- specific smell;
- pain when urinating;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- feelings of discomfort during intimacy.
In a large number of cases, vaginal itching is a sign of sexually transmitted infections, although in certain cases it can be observed against the background of:
- the development of inflammation processes in the pelvic organs;
- the appearance of yeast infections;
- development of vulvovaginitis;
- the appearance of vaginal atrophy;
- taking certain medications.
Yellow discharge as a sign of adnexitis, vaginitis and salpingitis
Vaginitis (another name for «colpitis») is called inflammation of the mucous membrane in the vaginal cavity. The main factors of the disease are:
- infections of yeast or bacterial origin;
- mechanical injury;
- diseases of the endocrine system;
- some cases of antibiotic treatment;
- allergic reactions to contraceptives and topical treatments;
- irregular observance of the rules of intimate hygiene;
- weakening of the body’s defenses.
With vaginitis, yellow discharge is usually accompanied by irritation and itching of the genitals, the appearance of a specific aroma, discomfort in case of urination and proximity. The risk group mainly includes women of reproductive age. Antibiotics or topical agents are used to treat vaginitis.
Two-stage therapy is recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of vaginitis and other vaginal infections. The fact is that antibacterial and antifungal drugs — the means of the first stage, destroy not only conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora, but also violate the natural lactoflora of the vagina. Violation of a healthy microbiome is highly likely to cause relapse and complicated infections in the future. Therefore, after using antibacterial agents, it is necessary to proceed to the second stage of treatment — the use of Lactoginal vaginal capsules. Laktozhinal restores the acid-base balance, stimulates the growth of beneficial microflora, increases the protective function of the vaginal mucosa. When using Laktoginal, experts note a significant decrease in the level of recurrence of conditions accompanied by secretions and odor.
Adnexitis (or salpingoophoritis) is an inflammation of the uterine appendages. The cause of the development of the disease can be:
- pathogens (streptococci, staphylococci, gonococci and others);
- cases of overwork;
- weak immunity;
- cases of hypothermia;
- stressful situations.
Improper treatment or its complete absence can threaten damage to the tissues of the uterus, pulling pains in the abdomen, as well as in the lumbar region, painful and irregular menstruation and discomfort during urination, and in some cases, infertility. Treatment of the disease is carried out using antibiotics, immunomodulators, analgesics, multivitamins and physiotherapy procedures.
Salpingitis is a process of inflammation that develops in the fallopian tubes. Just as with inflammation of the appendages, the development of the disease can cause the penetration of pathogens from the vaginal cavity. Mucous yellow discharge with impurities of pus in the case of the development of salpingitis indicates the accumulation of serous fluid in the cavity of the fallopian tubes. In addition, the manifestations of the disease are:
- severe pain during menstruation and during ovulation;
- pulling pains in the lumbar region;
- bouts of nausea and vomiting.
In the case of an acute form of salpingitis, the doctor prescribes treatment in a hospital using antibiotics, antihistamines, immunomodulators and physiotherapy procedures. In the absence of treatment, the risk of developing pathologies such as cicatricial changes, and sometimes infertility, increases.
Discharge in women and genital infections
Yellow or green discharge in women can be a symptom of a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Allocations, as such, are not the main symptom of the disease. You need to beat the alarm when itching appears against their background, as well as burning in the genitals, cases of bleeding between menstruation, a specific smell, and discomfort during intimacy. All this may indicate the appearance of infections such as:
In most cases, the symptoms of the disease appear on the second to tenth day after infection, however, in some cases, the disease may not manifest itself in any way for a month. Discharge in women in this case may have a white, yellow or green tint. In case of alarming symptoms, it is imperative to go to a specialist who will conduct an examination and prescribe the correct treatment. As a rule, antibiotics are used to treat gonorrhea — ceftriaxone, azithromycin, doxycycline.
The causative agent of the disease is Trichomonas vaginalis. Characteristic signs are yellow discharge with a specific odor, a feeling of itching, as well as burning in the area of the organs of the reproductive system, a feeling of discomfort during proximity and during urination. Therapy of trichomoniasis is complex and, in addition, individual for each patient. Otherwise, the disease can take a chronic form and, accordingly, lead to pathological processes during pregnancy, and even to the development of infertility. Trichomoniasis is treated with antibiotics — tinidazole, metronidazole.
This is perhaps the most common sexually transmitted infection. Moreover, the fair sex is more susceptible to this disease, which is accompanied by the appearance of yellow secretions of a mucous consistency, itching, and burning in the genital area, pulling pains in the abdomen, weakness and a slight increase in temperature. To diagnose chlamydia, the doctor prescribes PCR, bakposev or enzyme immunoassay. Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics — doxycycline and azithromycin.