Hypertension has acquired a mass of myths that patients constantly retell to each other. Some of them we asked a qualified doctor to dispel. What is dangerous «silent» hypertension? Is it possible not to take pills if the pressure has returned to normal? Why does it get worse from drugs? How is blood pressure related to hormones? aif.ru answered these and other questions cardiologist, therapist, associate professor of the Department of Internal Medicine with a course of cardiology and functional diagnostics named after V. S. Moiseev Medical Institute of RUDN University, Candidate of Medical Sciences Denis Medvedev.
If blood pressure rises, is it hypertension?
Hypertension is characterized by a persistent, prolonged increase in blood pressure. If periodically it is higher than 140 to 90, then this is an occasion to consult a doctor to exclude or confirm hypertension. Hypertension is still not fully understood disease and is becoming an epidemic.
The numbers on the tonometer are just an excuse to go to the doctor. The diagnosis of «hypertension» can only be made by a specialist. There are hypertension and secondary hypertension, which is associated with any disease. In the latter case, it is necessary to treat the disease in order to normalize the pressure.
Is it possible to walk with high blood pressure and not notice it?
Most often, hypertension is accompanied by headache, flashing «flies» before the eyes, dizziness, nausea, vomiting is possible. However, there is also «silent» hypertension, when people do not feel the increase in pressure. And since nothing bothers, many believe that there is no need to be treated. Therefore, «silent» hypertension is the most dangerous.
What happens if hypertension is not treated?
To date, it has been precisely established that hypertension is also associated with disruption of hormones (the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system). Incorrect work of these hormones, periodically or constantly high pressure numbers lead to increased stiffness of blood vessels. Roughly speaking, the stiffer the vessel, the less physiologically blood flows through it, the more fragile it is, the more serious the risk of heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure and brain diseases.
If I drank a course of pills and the pressure returned to normal, can I no longer be treated?
Not! Therapy is lifelong, with periodic correction of the drugs prescribed by the doctor. Reducing pressure figures is not an end in itself. In the first place is the task of blocking the malfunctioning of hormones and preventing the development of further clinical conditions associated with hypertension — heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, etc. Therefore, you should not drop the pills or reduce the dose yourself, even when the pressure has dropped to normal. It is necessary to constantly take medicines, including so that the pressure does not increase.
Can diet and exercise be enough?
“Beginners” of hypertension can get by with diet therapy, physical activity, salt restriction in the diet. But this is up to the doctor. A person alone, without the participation of a doctor, cannot prescribe diet therapy for himself and do without pills. In most cases, only a healthy lifestyle in neglected conditions will not lead to a decrease in pressure.
Why does it get worse when you start taking blood pressure medication?
The most common reason is that the patient has been walking with high blood pressure for a long time, got used to it, the vessels have adapted. When the pressure decreases or normalizes, this difference can give such symptoms — headaches, discomfort, dizziness. It does not last so long: from a day to three or four days. Be sure to inform the doctor about complaints. Perhaps the doctor will reduce the dose, adjust the regimen. You can not completely turn off the drugs, you must wait until the body gets used to normal pressure again.
If you constantly take medicines, will the liver and kidneys suffer?
Of course, any medicine has a number of pros and cons. If we weigh the risks and benefits, then our body suffers hundreds of times more from hypertension than from taking medications. In addition, when a patient takes medications, the doctor periodically prescribes tests to check the functions of the kidneys, liver, etc. In case of any deviations, the doctor will adjust the treatment, today the arsenal of antihypertensive therapy is very wide. If the tests are normal, then there is no point in canceling the drugs.
Is it necessary to follow a diet?
Yes! Otherwise, the effect of the treatment will decrease. Hypertension, obesity and diabetes usually follow in the same team: as one causes the other, and vice versa. Focus on the Mediterranean diet — more vegetables, fish, seafood, less easily digestible carbohydrates and highly processed foods (sausage, sausages, nuggets, etc.).