Ovarian cysts are often found during a routine examination by a gynecologist. Sometimes they are manifested by characteristic symptoms and pain in particular. Making such a diagnosis often scares women, because it in itself sounds quite menacing. Is it worth being afraid of such a conclusion and what measures are needed — MedAboutMe will tell.
Ovarian cyst: definition and types
A cyst is a hollow, fluid-filled mass that can be found anywhere. A similar diagnosis can be made by doctors of different specialties.
Ovarian cysts are easily detected by ultrasound of the pelvic organs. But this does not always allow you to specify their type and, accordingly, choose the tactics of treatment: observe, take medications, or surgical removal is recommended.
In the clinical practice of gynecologists, it is customary to distinguish several types of cysts that differ in size, structure, and causes.
Types and classification
Ovarian cysts are formed due to dysfunction of the female reproductive system: hormone imbalance, hormonal imbalance, inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs. Some medications can provoke a cyst.
Gynecologists distinguish several types of cysts:
- functional, which are divided into follicular and corpus luteum cysts;
More often in clinical practice, functional types of cysts are diagnosed. It is noteworthy that they can disappear on their own, literally in 2-3 menstrual cycles.
In the above list, the types of cysts are arranged according to their degree of danger: from smaller to larger. So, border cysts, in the absence of qualified treatment, can be reborn and turn into tumor formations. It is for these reasons that the diagnosis of «ovarian cyst» should be the reason for a more detailed examination, determining the type of formation and prescribing qualified treatment.
Functional cysts: symptoms
According to gynecologists, most often functional cysts are formed in every 2nd woman of childbearing age. The corpus luteum cyst is formed at the site of the covulriated follicle after the rupture and release of the egg. A follicular cyst, on the contrary, forms when the follicle reaches a large size and does not rupture.
As a rule, functional cysts exist for several months and resolve on their own. If a cyst is detected and its intensive growth is absent, gynecologists select treatment using oral contraceptives. If, despite the prescribed treatment, in a few months the cyst increases and reaches a size of 5-6 cm, then radical methods of treatment are recommended.
The symptoms of functional cysts are varied — this is pain, which can significantly increase during menstruation, with hypothermia, or against the background of acute and exacerbation of chronic diseases of the internal organs. Also, functional cysts can cause spotting and spotting between periods, cycle disorders, delays, and much more.
This type of cyst is formed not in the ovary itself, but in the space between it and the uterus, that is, in the ligament that connects the organs. If there are no symptoms of a cyst, it is small, then gynecologists choose the tactics of waiting. But if a woman is planning a pregnancy, such cysts must be removed. And if the hormonal balance is disturbed, their uncontrolled growth can be noted, which can be manifested by pain and other unpleasant symptoms.
Endometrioid cysts, or endometriomas, are formed due to minor bleeding from the focus of endometriosis. As a result, the formation of cavities in the ovary, filled with blood. Over time, the blood thickens, acquiring a shade of chocolate, it is for these reasons that they got their name.
Symptoms of such cysts may be absent: there is no pain, and uncomfortable sensations are often neglected. The only complaint that women come to the appointment with is problems with conception.
Another danger associated with the development of these cysts is the formation of an adhesive process, which may involve other nearby organs: the uterus, intestines. In this case, unpleasant symptoms are inevitable: pain that increases before and during menstruation, not only in the ovaries, but also in the lower abdomen.
With a detailed study and diagnosis, the treatment tactics are often surgical.
Perhaps the most mysterious type of cysts in gynecology. It is characterized as a benign formation, which may contain particles of embryonic tissues, presented in the form of a mucilaginous mass. The formation of such formations is associated with intrauterine development disorders.
These types of cysts are congenital, but their active growth is observed precisely during puberty. Therefore, they are often recorded in girls in the puberty period, more often in those of them who have an increased concentration of male sex hormones.
Characteristics of pain in borderline cysts
The diagnosis of «border cyst» can only be made after laparoscopy and according to the results of histological examination. If such a diagnosis was made to women aged 35-50 years, then regular preventive examinations and diagnostic procedures are necessary to help control the process and timely detect relapses of a borderline tumor.
When removing a cyst or tumor, laparoscopic access is most often used, which allows you to save healthy tissues that contain eggs.
Gynecologists remind that laparoscopy is also a diagnostic procedure with which you can assess the condition of the pelvic organs and understand which cysts were formed. Only after diagnosis is the question of treatment decided.
Border cysts are treated exclusively surgically, with follow-up and regular preventive examinations by gynecologists.
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