An ovarian cyst is a cavity formation on the surface or inside the ovary, which is benign in nature and contains liquid or semi-liquid contents. Despite the benign course, this pathology can become a serious threat to the female body. This disease is one of the most common causes of infertility.

The incidence of ovarian cysts is quite high. According to statistics, such a pathological process occupies a leading position among all other gynecological diseases. In this case, this neoplasm is most often found in women of reproductive age. During menopause, this pathology occurs in about six percent of female representatives.

The ovaries are paired organs that make up the female reproductive system. The structure of the ovaries is characterized by an oval shape and the presence of two layers: cortical and cerebral. The cortical layer is located most externally. It contains the follicles, inside which are the eggs. An interesting point is that with age, the thickness of the cortical layer gradually decreases. The medulla is located inside the ovary. It consists of connective tissue, muscle fibers, vascular formations and nerves. The ovaries perform a variety of functions. First of all, they take part in the maturation of the egg. In addition, these organs are able to synthesize specific hormones, namely estradiol, progesterone, and so on. It is due to these hormones that the menstrual cycle in a woman is regulated and normal pregnancy is ensured.

There are several forms of ovarian cysts:

  • Dermoid form

This species occurs in about twenty percent of cases. Such a neoplasm can reach fifteen centimeters in diameter, has a rounded shape and smooth walls. Inside the cavity is a jelly-like content. The main distinguishing point is that this tumor is congenital;

  • endometrioid form

The reason for the development of this form lies in the fact that the endometrium lining the uterine cavity begins to grow into the ovaries. The size of such a cavity can vary from one to ten centimeters. In rare cases, there are larger formations. This cyst is surrounded by a thick capsule and contains blood clots;

  • Follicular form

At the heart of the occurrence of this disease are various hormonal disorders that lead to the fact that the follicles containing the egg cannot break through. As a result, the resulting cavity consists directly of the follicle membranes themselves. In most cases, such a neoplasm is small and can regress on its own;

  • Mucinous form

The main danger of this form is that it can degenerate into a malignant tumor. Very often, such a cyst consists of several chambers, which contain viscous mucin.

The most common causes of such a pathological process are a variety of hormonal disorders, inflammatory diseases of the gynecological organs, as well as frequent abortions.

Symptoms of an ovarian cyst

Symptoms of an ovarian cyst

In the vast majority of cases, this disease proceeds for a long time without any clinical symptoms. For many women, it comes as a surprise when such a violation is detected during a preventive gynecological examination. However, sometimes the corresponding clinical picture does develop.

First of all, the patient complains of symptoms such as lower abdominal pain and various menstrual disorders. The nature of the pain syndrome can vary significantly in different women. In some cases, the pain is present all the time and increases during menstruation, while in others it occurs in the form of seizures. At the same time, the intensity of the pain syndrome can also vary significantly. In the event that the resulting cyst is hormonally active, it often affects the menstrual cycle. Clinically, this is manifested by too long and heavy menstruation, their irregularity and acyclicity. In addition, there is a situation when a cystic neoplasm begins to produce male sex hormones. As a result, there are signs such as excessive growth of body hair, various changes in the voice.

In the event that the neoplasm has reached a significant size, the following symptoms may appear: an increase in the abdominal circumference in diameter, dysuric disorders and constipation. Dysuric disorders and constipation are associated with the fact that the tumor begins to put pressure on the bladder and intestines.

As we have said, the occurrence of a cyst can lead to a number of serious complications. The most dangerous among them are adhesive processes in the pelvic area, rupture of the cystic cavity and female infertility.

Diagnosis and treatment of the disease

Diagnosis and treatment of the disease

Initially, to identify this disease, it is necessary to collect complaints and a complete gynecological examination. However, as a rule, this is not enough. Of the instrumental diagnostic methods, preference is given to ultrasound, computed or magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, in some cases, diagnostic laparoscopy may be prescribed.

Treatment of such a disease is carried out both conservatively and surgically. This directly depends on the size of the neoplasm and the accompanying clinical picture. Conservative therapy in this case implies the use of hormonal drugs. Surgical intervention can be performed with excision of only the tumor, or maybe with complete removal of the ovary.

Prevention of cysts

The main method of prevention is the passage of scheduled gynecological examinations, which allow you to identify violations at the earliest stage of their development.

Problems and prospects for the diagnosis and treatment of retention ovarian cysts / Nikolaeva I.N., Kulinich S.I., Golubev S.S., Batunova E.V. // ACTA BIOMEDICA SCIENTIFICA 2005 №5(43)

Functional ovarian cysts against the background of intrauterine exposure to levonorgestrel in patients with endometrial hyperplasia / Chernukha G.E., Shigoreva T.V., Kasyan V.N., Lipatenkova Yu.I. // Reproduction problems 2010 T. 16 No. 5