Cervical erosion is a disease that in some cases can acquire a cancerous nature, so a frivolous attitude to this disease is unacceptable. To avoid erosion, doctors recommend that women avoid abortions, carefully observe personal hygiene, and use condoms.
Why erosion occurs and how the cervix is treated, MedAboutMe will tell.
Uterus: structure and functions
The uterus is represented by a hollow smooth muscle organ in the small pelvis. It is located in front of the rectum and behind the bladder. Outwardly, the uterus looks like a pear, and its main purpose is to carry a pregnancy. The elasticity of the structure of the uterine walls provides an increase and compaction of the uterus at the stage of pregnancy so that the organ can withstand the weight and size of the growing fetus.
The uterus is “fastened” due to special ligaments that hold it in place and at the same time make it possible to move if necessary: for example, during pregnancy, the uterus is picked up, and when the bladder is full, it shifts back a little, etc.
In the structure of the uterus, the cervix, isthmus, body of the uterus and fundus are noted.
The cervix «takes» almost a third of the entire length of the uterus and is arranged in the form of a muscular «ring» associated with the vagina. In the cervix there is a cervical canal — a small opening through which menstrual blood exits and spermatozoa enter the uterus to fertilize the egg. The cervix is needed for two purposes: to promote the fertilization process and to block infections from reaching the upper genital regions.
One of the most common diseases of this organ is erosion.
The cervix is lined from the outside and from the inside with a layer of tissue. Its outer surface is represented by a smooth and light pink shiny structure with stratified epithelium, which also covers the walls of the vagina. This layer of cells is very strong, it contains substances that activate the vital activity of sour-milk microorganisms in the vagina. The internal canal is covered with a different type of epithelium — it is of a secretory type (it produces a special mucus that facilitates the movement of spermatozoa to the uterine cavity), velvety and bright pink in color.
With erosion, the integrity of the epithelial layer is violated, this can be determined during the examination: bright red areas surrounding the pharynx of the cervix are visualized.
The term «erosion» is translated as «ulcer», which should be understood as a flaw in the epithelial coating. Erosion of the cervix, according to doctors, occurs with improper douching, after suffering inflammation, with trauma from the use of chemical and mechanical methods of protection, and with cancer. Often you can find such a phenomenon as pseudo-erosion (ectopia) on the cervix — it is determined by the growth of secretory epithelial tissue beyond the usual location. Doctors explain pseudo-erosion by an unstable hormonal balance in the pubertal phase. Pseudo-erosion is benign, but can result in a number of complications. With ectopia, various infections (herpes simplex virus, chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.) get free access from the vagina to the pelvic organs, since the secretory epithelium does not have barrier protection. Once in an acidic vaginal environment, this epithelium is replaced by a multilayer one, but the replacement process is rather complicated and often turns into a malignant state.
Ectopia at the stage of self-healing creates excellent conditions for the activation of the human papillomavirus, which spreads during sexual intercourse. On this basis, even cancerous tumors can arise. Therefore, the disease is not at all harmless, and doctors strictly control ectopia at all its stages.
Papillary erosion of the cervix also tends to turn into a cancerous tumor, so doctors strive to quickly identify the nature and nature of ulcers as soon as possible. A medical specialist can find out about problems when viewed through a special colposcope device, the ulcerated epithelium differs sharply from healthy tissue. In addition to colposcopic examination, cytological and histological analyzes are performed. Cytology is the study of a swab taken under a microscope. Histology — the study of the cut-off element of the affected epithelium, to determine the malignancy / benign lesions.
The affected epithelium is able to recover, so there are cases when the pathology disappears on its own. But in general, erosion and pseudo-erosion are treated on an outpatient basis.
Treatment of the cervix
The most high-quality treatment of the cervix is provided by means of a laser scalpel. This method makes it possible to preserve healthy areas of the epithelium, guarantees the highest accuracy of the surgical incision and healing without scarring in a short time (30-40 days).
The method of cauterization (scientifically diathermocoagulation) was previously the most common treatment option for the cervix. At the present stage, it is relevant only for pseudo-erosions of a benign genre in women with children, since as a result of diathermocoagulation, the cervix often loses its natural extensibility, which will adversely affect future births. With this method, regeneration lasts no longer than 8-10 weeks.
Cryodestruction is also used in the treatment of ectopia, when abnormal areas are exposed to liquid gas, but there is a risk of poor-quality freezing of the epithelium, which is why not all pathologically altered cells die. With cryodestruction, healing takes place within 8-10 weeks.
Before the introduction of modern methods, cervical erosion was treated with tampons soaked in drugs. But this method has low efficiency, so it is practically not used.
In order to prevent pathological processes associated with the cervix, it is important to be examined by a gynecologist twice a year. Especially if there has already been treatment for cervical erosion: this disease has a tendency to relapse.
Obstetrics / Ed. Savelieva G.M. — 2000
Treatment of benign diseases of the cervix / Kostava M.N., Prilepskaya V. // breast — 1998 — Vol. 6 No. 13