Female infertility is one of the most urgent problems in modern medicine. It can lead to it not only anatomical defects in the structure of the uterus, but also inflammatory processes inside its cavity or in the region of the appendages. Often, inflammation is caused by a latent or sluggish infection, which forms an obstruction of the fallopian tubes for the egg or disrupts the growth of the endometrium, which makes implantation of the embryo impossible. Often the cause of infertility is the influence of hormones and disruptions in the menstrual cycle. Let’s talk in more detail about the forms of female infertility and the reasons that lead to it.

Types of infertility in women

Types of infertility in women

By origin and development options, several forms of infertility can be distinguished among women of different ages. This is a tubal-peritoneal variant, detected in approximately 40% of the examined women. It is associated with impaired patency inside the fallopian tubes for various reasons, ranging from traumatic to tumor and inflammatory.

Infertility associated with endocrine factors, resulting from the fact that the balance of both sex hormones as a group of estrogens and androgens, and hormones produced by other organs (adrenal glands, thyroid gland and pituitary gland) is disturbed. With this type of pathology, egg maturation is disrupted and ovulation is inhibited due to hormonal deficiency or their excessive production.

Infertility, which is associated with the problems of the uterus itself — with it, the process of penetration of spermatozoa into its cavity is disrupted or implantation does not occur due to anatomical defects or endometrial insufficiency.

Immunological forms of infertility associated with the incompatibility of partners, the formation of an immune response to the sperm of a man.

A special option is psychogenic infertility, in which there are no anatomical or functional prerequisites, but pregnancy does not occur due to the woman’s obsession with her problem or self-hypnosis.

The role of infection in shaping the problem

Under normal conditions, microorganisms are present on the surface of the skin of the genitals and mucous membranes of the vagina, and the uterine cavity and appendages are sterile. If the immune defense is disturbed, conditions arise for the penetration of infection into the uterine cavity and appendages, acute or chronic inflammation develops with impaired functioning of the pelvic organs. An active infection leads to the formation of an acute process in labor — pyosalpings, or pelvioperitonitis — an acute purulent process in the small pelvis. Often this problem leads to surgical intervention, up to the removal of the tubes. This leads to further infertility.

Chronic inflammation in the genital area

Chronic inflammation in the genital area

Often, a latent or sluggish infection leads to a constant progressive inflammation, in which the structure and patency of the fallopian tubes suffer, adhesions and impaired functionality are formed. Such infections are no less dangerous for the uterus itself — endometritis, an inflammatory process in the area of ​​u200bu200bthe internal cavity, often involving appendages and tubes, can develop. Chronic inflammation can practically not manifest itself in any way, while its treatment is complicated, irreversible processes occur that lead to problems with conception.

The result of chronic inflammation is adhesions in the uterine cavity, pelvic area or inside the tubes, which does not allow the egg to meet with spermatozoa and get into the uterine cavity for implantation.

Inflammation can be caused by nonspecific flora, or it can be provoked by the tuberculous process, intimate infections.

Hormonal disorders of the menstrual cycle

Against the background of endocrine shifts at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, as well as peripheral organs — the ovaries, under the influence of other endocrine organs — the adrenal glands or the thyroid gland, a menstrual disorder may develop. Ovarian cysts and tumors, their polycystic degeneration, hypothyroidism or hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, as well as excessive activity of the adrenal cortex, have a significant effect on hormonal metabolism. Obesity or anorexia, a sharp loss of body weight can also change the menstrual cycle.

As a result of hormonal influences, the menstrual cycle is disturbed, egg maturation suffers, it becomes anovulatory. In severe cases, the menstrual cycle may temporarily completely disappear. But it is important to remember about age-related changes in ovulation, after 35-37 years, the ability to conceive decreases, ovulation may not occur every cycle, but once every 3-6 months.

Pathologies of the uterus that affect conception

Pathologies of the uterus that affect conception

One of the most important organs of the reproductive sphere in a woman is the uterus, inside which implantation, growth and development of the embryo takes place throughout all 9 months of pregnancy. In the presence of congenital anomalies of its structure or acquired pathologies, the process of endometrial formation may be disturbed, which creates unfavorable conditions for implantation. Synechia inside the uterus and in the cervical region, diseases of the organ can also become dangerous.

If the uterus is affected by endometriosis, there are polyps in its cavity or myomatous nodes are located in the thickness, this can become an obstacle to conception and gestation. Changes in the cervical region with a change in the composition of the cervical mucus will also be no less serious, which prevents the penetration of spermatozoa into the cavity and tubes.

Additional influences

Often, a long-term stressful state of a woman, the presence of chronic somatic diseases or infectious processes in her becomes an obstacle to conception. The body understands that now the conditions for bearing the fetus are unfavorable and blocks ovulation and the ability to conceive. The menstrual cycle and ovulation, peristalsis of the fallopian tubes and the formation of secrets in the cervical region suffer. All this becomes a temporary obstacle to pregnancy. As the state of the body returns to normal, the psychological background comes to a stable state, fertility is restored, and the diagnosis of infertility is removed.

Infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome / Orazmuradova L.D., Orazmuradov A.A., Paendi F.A., Khapaeva A.V. // obstetrics and gynecology 2009 6