The uterus is an important organ of the female reproductive system. She takes part in the development of the embryo and the further bearing of the fetus. Topographically, this anatomical formation is located in the pelvic cavity and is limited to the bladder in front and the rectum in the back.

In its structure, the uterus is mainly represented by smooth muscle tissue, which allows this organ to stretch as the fetus grows in it. Its muscle layer is called the myometrium. It consists of three multidirectional bundles of smooth muscles, and also contains a small amount of fibrous connective tissue and elastic fibers. In addition, two more layers are distinguished in the wall of the uterus: perimetrium and endometrium. The perimetrium is the outer serous membrane of this organ. The endometrium is the innermost layer, consisting of columnar epithelium.

The structure of the uterus is represented by three sections: the neck, body and bottom. The cervix is ​​the most narrowed part, gradually passing into the vagina. It is customary to distinguish between the vaginal and supravaginal parts. The body and bottom are more expanded and convex sections.

cervical dysplasia

cervical dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is accompanied by the formation of cells with an abnormal structure as part of the normal epithelium of this area. Such a pathological process is not malignant in itself, but it increases the risk of developing an oncological disease several times. Most often, this pathology is found in women who are of reproductive age.

In the vast majority of cases, the formation of cervical dysplasia is associated with infection of the female body with the human papillomavirus. In the event that such a viral flora lives in the body for a long time, it can lead to a change in the normal structure of cellular elements, resulting in atypical cells. In addition, there are a number of other risk factors that may cause the development of this pathological process. First of all, these include severe immunodeficiency, which develops as a result of chronic diseases, overwork or malnutrition. A certain role is played by bad habits, mechanical damage to the neck of this organ, chronic inflammatory processes affecting the reproductive system, and various changes in the hormonal background.

There is a division of such a disease according to severity:

  • The first degree is characterized by a mild change in the cellular structure, as well as the involvement of only one third of the squamous epithelium in the pathological process;
  • The second degree — is manifested by the defeat of two-thirds of the entire thickness of the squamous epithelium;
  • Third degree — atypical cells are found throughout the entire thickness of the stratified squamous epithelium.

Cervical dysplasia in itself, as a rule, does not give any clinical manifestations. As a result of this, most often it is discovered by chance, when a woman comes for a preventive examination or refers to another pathological process. It is worth noting that it is characterized by a long, gradually progressive course. Moreover, most often this disease develops in conjunction with secondary bacterial pathologies that cause inflammatory processes in various gynecological organs. In this case, there are specific symptoms in the form of discharge from the genital tract with an unpleasant color and smell, painful or itchy sensations, and so on.

Prolapse of the uterus

Prolapse of the uterus

Omission of the uterus is an unnatural displacement of this organ downward, as a result of which it extends beyond its anatomical region. In this case, the cervix remains in place. The main reason for the development of this pathological process is the weakening of the pelvic muscles and ligaments, due to which the uterus is attached in its place.

The greatest risk group for the occurrence of uterine prolapse is women who have had a pregnancy or are in old age. In addition, there are other predisposing factors to the development of this pathology. These include:

  • Various traumatic effects and surgical interventions on this organ;
  • Hereditary predisposition to such a disease;
  • Too high physical loads on the body;
  • Excess body weight;
  • Tumor processes in the abdominal cavity.

Prolapse of the uterus is always accompanied by a number of rather pronounced clinical manifestations. First of all, it is a pain syndrome that can spread to the lumbar region. Characterized by the appearance of pain during intercourse. Sick women complain about the feeling of a foreign body in the vagina and general discomfort. There is a frequent urge to urinate and a violation of the act of defecation in the form of constipation. Very often, abundant mucous masses mixed with blood begin to stand out from the vagina. In such women, as a rule, there is a violation of the menstrual cycle.

Treatment of the uterus and prevention of its diseases

The main treatment for a prolapsed uterus is surgery. Its principle is selected for each sick woman individually, depending on her age and the severity of the pathological process.

In case of occurrence of atypical cells in the neck of this organ, surgical treatment is also recommended. It can be carried out using cryodestruction of the affected area or by surgical removal of the altered area. In addition, with such a pathological process, the appointment of immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory therapy is indicated.

To prevent the above diseases, it is necessary to undergo preventive examinations by a gynecologist, treat inflammatory diseases of the gynecological organs in a timely manner, and also avoid too high physical exertion on the body.

Published on 05/22/2017 11:00 am, updated on 04/17/2020 05:21 pm

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Used sources

Substantiation of the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease of the uterus / Tapilskaya N.I., Karpeev S.A., Gaidukov S.N. // Bulletin of dermatology and venereology 2015 #2

Modern principles of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of uterine leiomyoma / Tikhomirov A.L., Serov V.N. // breast 2000 Vol. 8 No. 11

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