Mastopathy is a pathological process, which is caused by the growth of epithelial and glandular tissues with the formation of foci of seals and cystic elements. Such a disease occurs as a result of an imbalance between hormonal substances in the body and is characterized by a benign flow process. A very large percentage of females who are of reproductive age suffer from it.
The mammary gland is a paired formation located on the anterior surface of the chest. It has a convex structure and distinguishes in its composition the body of the mammary gland, nipple and areola. It consists of a large number of lobes, which, in turn, are formed by alveolar-tubular glands. An excretory duct departs from each lobule, which merge into larger formations and open on the surface of the nipple. The lobes are separated from each other by a tissue of connective and fatty nature, which has a loose structure. The degree of severity of such a layer for each woman is different and depends on the individual characteristics of the organism. The areola is represented by a pigmented rounded area surrounding the nipple. It contains a large number of sweat glands. The full formation of the mammary gland occurs during sexual development as a result of an increase in the synthesis of estrogen hormones.
It is customary to distinguish two main types of mastopathy: diffuse and nodular.
The diffuse form is a set of small-sized seals located throughout the breast tissue. In most cases, it is the predecessor of the nodal form. It is divided into several varieties:
- Adenous variety — characterized by a predominant growth of glandular tissues. Is the most common form of the disease;
- Fibroadenomatous variety — differs in that in a larger ratio there is an increase in the volume of the connective component of the mammary gland;
- Cystic variety — manifested by the formation of small cystic cavities in the mammary gland, which can then degenerate into malignant formations;
- Fibrocystic variety — combines the signs of the formation of cystic cavities and the growth of connective tissue.
The nodular form proceeds with the formation of sufficiently large single or multiple seals or cysts in the tissues of the mammary gland. Such formations are distinguished by clear boundaries and non-solidity with surrounding tissues. It also has development options:
- Fibrous variant — characterized by the process of replacement of glandular tissue with connective tissue. In the process of growth, compression of the ducts by such connective tissue is possible;
- Cystic variant — manifested by the formation of cavities that contain fluid in their composition and are surrounded by a fairly dense capsular element;
- Fibrocystic variant — in this variant, the primary element is the focus of compaction, which over time can turn into a cystic formation.
Among the possible causes of mastopathy are:
- Tumor formations and inflammatory processes of the ovaries;
- hereditary conditionality;
- Pathological processes on the part of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands;
- The presence of cases of abortion in history or prolonged absence of pregnancies;
- Traumatic effect on breast tissue;
- The presence of addictions and prolonged and frequent exposure to stressful situations.
As mentioned earlier, nodular mastopathy is represented by a larger formation in the area of u200bu200bthe mammary gland, which can be single or multiple. In addition, this form can occur both in one breast and in both.
Clinically, nodular mastopathy manifests itself:
- Palpable dense or elastic formation in the tissues of the mammary gland;
- A feeling of soreness in this area and an increase in the size of the mammary gland;
- Swelling and pain in the axillary lymph nodes;
- Discharge from the nipples of fluid, which may be clear or brownish in color.
Nodular mastopathy can be complicated by the addition of a secondary bacterial infection with the development of fever, breast hyperemia and a general deterioration in the health of a sick woman. In addition, this form, without proper and timely treatment, can turn into a malignant neoplasm.
Diffuse mastopathy is represented by multiple small seals that are scattered throughout the area of the mammary gland. It is characterized by a milder course and the absence of clinical manifestations at the beginning of the disease. However, as the pathological process grows and progresses, the symptoms increase and can be almost permanent.
Symptoms of diffuse mastopathy:
- Soreness and swelling in the mammary gland;
- Its increase in size, especially in the premenstrual period;
- Palpable small seals throughout the organ;
- Discharge from the nipples of a clear or brownish liquid.
Diffuse mastopathy in most cases proceeds without complications and responds well to therapy. However, in the advanced stages, it can pass into the nodular form of the disease.
Diagnosis of the disease
Mastopathy is diagnosed by a mammologist. He conducts a collection of complaints and a thorough examination and palpation of the breast. In order to confirm the diagnosis, the following instrumental methods are used:
- Ultrasound examination of the breast;
- Biopsy followed by histological examination in doubtful cases.
In addition, it is recommended to conduct a laboratory study of the level of hormonal substances in the body.
Treatment of mastopathy and its prevention
Among the methods of treatment of mastopathy, there can be both conservative measures and surgical ones. Mastopathy is medically treated with hormonal drugs, for example, gestagens. In addition, herbal preparations and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. In severe and advanced cases, surgical intervention is performed.
Ways to prevent the disease include giving up bad habits, full sexual activity, avoiding stress and a balanced diet.
Published on 01/16/2017 01:43 PM, updated on 04/17/2020 05:28 PM
Mastopathy: a new look at an old problem through the eyes of a gynecologist / Pekarev O.G., Vasiliev A.N., Popova S.P., Pekareva E.O. // obstetrics and gynecology — 2010 — 5
How is mastopathy diagnosed?
Timely thorough diagnosis is the key to the rapid elimination of the disease. There are several effective methods for diagnosing mastopathy.
Mastopathy: is it worth it to be afraid
All over the world, many women suffer from mastopathy. What is this disease? Should I be afraid of mastopathy? When to run to the doctor, and is it true that pregnancy helps with mastopathy.
Mastopathy: diagnosis and treatment
Mastopathy is the most common disease of the mammary glands that occurs in women of all ages. How to recognize the disease and avoid complications?