An ovarian cyst is a benign formation that looks like a cavity filled with liquid secretion. An increase in the volume of fluid filling the cyst leads to further growth of the neoplasm. There are six types of cystic formations, and which of them are harmless and which are dangerous — later in the article.
What is an ovarian cyst in a woman?
How does a cyst form? A healthy woman has a pair of ovaries. They are located on both sides of the uterus. Every month, an egg is produced in one ovary, and this moment marks the beginning of the menstrual cycle. While in the follicle, the egg matures as a result of exposure to the hormone estrogen until the uterus is ready to receive it. On average, two weeks after the first day of menstruation, the follicle ruptures, releasing the cell. After that, she enters the fallopian tube, in which, perhaps, her fertilization will occur. However, there are situations when the follicle does not break, but continues to increase in size, accumulating an increasing amount of fluid. Thus, the follicle turns into a cyst.
A large number of cystic neoplasms are benign and disappear over time without drug therapy. Ovarian cysts can be found in women of any age, but most often they form during the reproductive period.
The cyst in most cases looks like a single neoplasm, but sometimes there are also multiple cystomas. Almost always, a cyst and a cystoma are benign formations, but there are cases of their degeneration into cancerous tumors.
In medicine, there are six types of cystic formations:
- Endometrioid — appears when endometrial cells begin to grow inside the ovary. This formation is almost always bilateral.
- Follicular is a single-chamber cyst with a thin membrane filled with a colorless liquid. Usually these formations are small, and their increase occurs towards the abdominal cavity.
- Mucinous — filled with contents of a mucous consistency. It often consists of many chambers, and is able to grow to large sizes. Mucinous and endometrioid cysts are the most dangerous and tend to degenerate into oncological diseases.
- Dermoid — the contents of which include embryonic tissue. Such a cyst is usually thick-walled and grows slowly.
- Paraovarian — formations appear in the area of u200bu200bthe appendages located above the ovaries. The cyst looks like a single-chamber round or oval tumor filled with a colorless liquid. Almost always benign.
The ovarian cyst of the corpus luteum is located exclusively on one side. Its walls are thickened and filled with a yellowish liquid, sometimes with the presence of blood. Usually this cyst is small and grows slowly.
Found an ovarian cyst: the main causes and symptoms
The likelihood of a cyst increases when:
- there are violations of the cycle of menstruation;
- puberty came too early (before 13 years);
- diagnosed with infertility;
- hormonal changes are observed;
- there were cases when a cyst was found before;
- was an abortion.
In addition, there are other causes of the disease. Each type of cyst is always the result of a problem.
Basically, the disease is almost asymptomatic, and the presence of a neoplasm is determined only by ultrasound or during an appointment with a gynecologist. However, if the cyst has reached a significant size, the patient may experience the following symptoms:
- irregular menstruation;
- frequent bouts of nausea;
- pulling pains in the lower abdomen, acquiring a sharp character after physical exertion or during sexual intercourse;
- discharge with an admixture of blood;
- short-term bouts of pain;
- enlarged belly.
Such symptoms may indicate the likelihood of a neoplasm on the ovary, but only a specialist can diagnose a cyst. If the patient has a cyst, she is assigned an ultrasound examination. In addition, a hormone study is performed to help determine the exact cause of the disease.
If the disease has become severe, and the cyst has ruptured, the woman feels:
- the appearance of sharp pains in the lower abdomen;
- temperature increase over 38°C;
- increased heart rate;
- severe weakness in the whole body;
- immediate reduction in blood pressure;
- profuse bleeding.
If these symptoms appear, you should immediately seek qualified help, it is best to call an ambulance at home.
Methods for the treatment of cysts: what is laparoscopy?
Treatment of cysts can be done both medically and surgically.
The latter is used in the event of complications, as well as in case of suspicion of a malignant nature of the tumor. Not only dangerous tumors, but also cystic formations in women planning a pregnancy are subject to unconditional removal. This is done for the reason that during the period of bearing a child, the likelihood of twisting or a further increase in the size of the cyst increases.
Recently, laparoscopy has been used in a large number of cases of surgical operations. This is an operation performed without making surgical incisions. The surgeon makes small incisions through which an endoscope equipped with a camera is inserted. This device helps to monitor the progress of the operation on the main monitor and helps to eliminate errors. The operation lasts no more than an hour, after which the patient stays in the hospital for one day under the supervision of a doctor.
Treatment of a cyst with a medical method is carried out with its small size. In this case, drugs containing progesterone (Dufaston) are used, which helps to slow down the increase in the size of the cyst. The duration of the course of therapy is up to six months.
In addition, if a small cyst is found in a patient, she is prescribed medications that normalize hormone levels — Yarina or Novinet. The duration of taking these drugs is determined by the attending physician, taking into account the results of the patient’s blood test. Self-administration of such drugs is unacceptable.
Alternative Medicine Recipes
Treatment of small ovarian cysts in some cases can be done at home, using alternative medicine recipes. Here are some of them:
- After squeezing the juice from the Kalanchoe leaf, combine it in a one-to-one ratio with bee honey. Soak a gauze pad in this composition, and then insert it into the vagina before going to bed. If there is a cyst in the area of the right ovary, you need to lie down on the right side, in the area of the left — on the left. Continue such treatment until the absolute disappearance of painful symptoms.
- Put one teaspoon of bee honey on the surface of a bandage or gauze and make a swab. Insert it into the vagina, as in the previous case. In parallel with the treatment with such tampons, it is recommended to drink a glass of warm water with two tablespoons of honey every day on an empty stomach.
It should be understood that the effectiveness of such methods is not confirmed by scientific research and can lead to a lack of effect and complications. Therefore, before using any folk remedy, you need to consult a doctor.
Gynecology. National leadership / Ed. G. M. Savelyeva, G. T. Sukhikh, I.B. Manukhin — 2013
Endometrioid ovarian cysts and fertility: discussion aspects / Dubinskaya E.D., Dutov A.A., Lapteva N.V., Babicheva I.A., Kolesnikova S.N. // Issues of gynecology, obstetrics and perinatology — 2015 — T. 14 No. 5