Bleeding from the genital tract is one of the alarming symptoms for any woman, especially if she is a future mother. Often, this kind of bleeding indicates serious hormonal disorders or severe inflammatory pathologies, neoplasms in the uterine cavity, or other problems leading to blood loss. Most often, women of reproductive age experience bleeding of a dysfunctional nature associated with hormonal imbalances, especially in relation to female hormones.
Uterine bleeding — when is it possible?
Bleeding is quite possible in women of any age group, from puberty (and sometimes earlier) to menopause. Therefore, doctors divide bleeding into:
- juvenile, occurring in young girls, from 11-12 to 17-19 years old;
- dysfunctional or otherwise affecting women of childbearing age;
- premenopausal or bleeding in menopause, when the body withers, and associated with the extinction of the functionality of the ovaries.
Although they all have different causes, the general signs that characterize uterine bleeding in almost any woman will be about the same. This is a significant amount of blood that is released with menstruation, lengthening the period of heavy periods beyond 6-7 days. In addition, acyclic bleeding can be observed: they occur between menstruation or against the background of a delay in menstruation (without pregnancy) for about 6 weeks or more. The intensity of uterine bleeding and its duration for each woman may be different, it all depends on the cause and many accompanying conditions.
However, if there is uterine bleeding, it is typical manifestations of blood loss, leading to a violation of the general condition and anemia. Usually, against the background of prolonged and very abundant discharge, which lasts more than 7 days, pathological symptoms are revealed — pallor, lethargy, fatigue. Women may suffer from headaches with dizziness, pressure drops, general well-being and appetite suffer.
In addition, uterine bleeding is considered profuse and dangerous to health if a woman’s tampon or pad (super plus, 4 drops or more) gets wet in an hour or less, and also if pads or tampons need to be changed several times at night. Often, due to the amount of blood lost, a woman cannot lead a normal life and is forced to lie down most of the time. Uterine bleeding should also alert, in which, even against the background of not particularly abundant blood loss, many clots are released, there is an unpleasant odor, pain or fever.
Causes of bleeding at a young age
In girls aged 12-13 years, in the process of entering puberty, the reasons for bleeding will be special, and this pathology itself occurs in about 20% of all such cases. Basically, the causes of bleeding in young girls lie in hormonal imbalance, deficiency or excess of estrogens, progesterone or male hormones. Endocrine metabolism disorders at such a young age are provoked by various physical injuries, emotional upheavals, malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. Problems in the work of the thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, childhood infections, transferred in severe form — measles, influenza, chickenpox with complications can lead to complications of menstruation and bleeding. In addition, foci of chronic infection, the presence of latent tuberculosis or other serious latent infections can affect the general condition and hormonal balance. In some cases, bleeding at this age may be the first sign of a clotting problem.
Causes of bleeding in the reproductive period
Only 5% of all causes of bleeding in this age period are hormone-dependent. Usually, uterine bleeding in women of childbearing age is combined with ovarian problems. Often, bleeding occurs against the background of severe stress, constant overwork, heavy physical exertion. Occupational hazards, chemical factors, fluctuations in climatic factors, the development of infections and inflammatory processes of the reproductive system can affect women.
Often, the causes of bleeding are hidden in the presence of uterine endometriosis, fibroids, or a chronic inflammatory process (endometritis). Uterine tumors, polyps, miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, or taking medications that cause a hormonal breakdown can give profuse bleeding.
Causes of bleeding during menopause
In women who have entered menopause, bleeding remains by no means a rare pathology. They represent about 15-20% of all pathologies typical of menopause. This is explained quite simply: the stability of hormone production in the pituitary gland is disturbed, they can be released in uneven volumes — either increased or decreased. Different concentrations of hormones have a peculiar effect on the endometrium of the uterus, leading to its abundant exfoliation. Often, against the background of menopausal changes, an increase in estrogen against the background of a lack of progesterone is typical. This leads to endometrial hyperplasia. Then it is rejected with profuse bleeding.
However, the causes of bleeding at this age can be not only functional, but also dangerous to health. Often, uterine bleeding provokes endometriosis or large uterine fibroids, polyps or tumors, ovarian lesions, especially actively releasing hormones.
Special uterine bleeding
If a woman is sexually active, especially without contraception, it is worth, first of all, in the presence of uterine bleeding, to suspect pregnancy and its complications. Usually, in the presence of pregnancy, or rather, with the threat of its interruption, when the fetal egg exfoliates from the wall of the uterus, bleeding develops, pain in the lower abdomen and malaise. Also, uterine bleeding is typical for an ectopic pregnancy, when a tube ruptures with severe pain and a massive outflow of blood and fluid into the abdominal cavity.
If the gestational age is already significant, uterine bleeding may be a sign of placental abruption or premature birth, which requires immediate assistance that will save the life of the mother and fetus.
Obstetrics / Ed. Savelieva G.M. — 2000