According to medical statistics, approximately one in eight clinically diagnosed pregnancies ends in miscarriage, or spontaneous termination. The indicated indicator can be considered conditional, since it often happens that a miscarriage occurs in the primary period after conception, when the woman does not yet know about the onset of pregnancy. Under such circumstances, the manifestations of pathology are often mistaken by the patient for a normal failure of the menstrual cycle or heavy menstruation.
Why does a miscarriage occur in the early stages of gestation, how to recognize the threat of abortion and what methods are used in medicine to prevent spontaneous abortion in a future mother? The MedAboutMe investigation will help answer these and other questions.
Causes of miscarriage in early pregnancy
The predominant number of cases of spontaneous abortion occurs in the first twelve weeks of gestation. In this case, the causes of miscarriage are most often due to the following factors:
- pathology of the endocrine system, hormonal disorders in the maternal body;
- inflammatory processes in the uterus, tumors of the female genital organs;
- diseases of the genitourinary system, cardiovascular pathologies;
- blood clotting disorders, infectious diseases;
- anomalies in the structure of the uterus, isthmic-cervical insufficiency;
- previous abortions or operations on the uterus are common causes of miscarriage in early pregnancy;
- malformations of the embryo, Rh-conflict (immunological incompatibility between the mother and fetus according to the Rh factor);
- taking certain medications during pregnancy;
- various kinds of intoxication (including those provoked by the use of alcohol or drugs);
- injuries, heavy physical exertion;
- nervous strain, stressful situations.
Most of the listed causes of miscarriage are obviously preventable. Therefore, it is important for a woman planning motherhood to take care of her own health in advance and to exclude from life as much as possible all the factors that can provoke an abortion.
The main stages of early miscarriage
The development and course of spontaneous abortion is usually divided into four stages:
- Risk of miscarriage. With timely treatment of pathology, pregnancy, in most cases, can be saved.
- Started miscarriage. At this stage, the probability of maintaining pregnancy is still present, subject to the implementation of emergency therapeutic measures by doctors.
- Spontaneous abortion in progress. An irreversible condition that cannot be medically corrected, due to the fact that the fetal egg or embryo has already left the uterine cavity in whole or in part.
- Completed spontaneous abortion. The remains of the fetal egg (embryo) are removed from the body; the uterus begins to contract and the bleeding gradually stops. In order to prevent complications, a woman who has had a miscarriage is advised to contact a gynecologist in a timely manner and undergo appropriate medical examinations.
The threat of miscarriage in the early stages: symptoms and treatment
The occurrence of a threat of miscarriage, as a rule, does not go unnoticed for a woman, since it is manifested by pronounced specific symptoms. The onset of spontaneous abortion is usually signaled by:
- the occurrence of pain in the lower abdomen (severe or moderate);
- the appearance of spotting from the vagina or the onset of vaginal bleeding.
In some cases, the state of threatened miscarriage may be accompanied by weakness, dizziness, nagging pain in the lower back, fever, chills, nausea, diarrhea.
If the above symptoms occur, a pregnant woman should immediately seek medical help. If it turns out that the threat of miscarriage is indeed present, the doctors will promptly implement a set of measures aimed at maintaining the current pregnancy. Usually, patients with a threatened miscarriage in the early stages are prescribed therapy with special medications in the form of tablets or injections. The spectrum of medications used may include hormonal, antispasmodic and sedative drugs, as well as restorative drugs and vitamins.
Treatment after a miscarriage
It is important for a woman who has had a miscarriage outside the walls of a medical institution to remember that a completed abortion without medical intervention is an extremely rare phenomenon. After a spontaneous abortion, fragments of the fetal egg often remain in the uterine cavity, which, in the absence of timely medical measures, can provoke the development of an inflammatory or infectious process. It is for this reason that many patients after a miscarriage are recommended a gynecological curettage procedure or cleaning the uterus using vacuum aspiration.
In the future, in order to prevent complications, a woman may need to undergo a course of physiotherapy and / or treatment with medications prescribed by a doctor. During the entire recovery period, the patient must be under systematic medical supervision and strictly follow all medical recommendations.
Planning for pregnancy after a miscarriage
After a miscarriage, it is undesirable to plan conception for six to twelve months. Approximately such a period is necessary for the woman’s body to fully recover from the stress associated with spontaneous abortion and associated gynecological operations.
In preparation for conception, the patient is recommended to undergo a series of examinations aimed at identifying factors that could provoke a miscarriage. If any are found, the woman will be prescribed an effective treatment that will eliminate or minimize the likelihood of miscarriage of a subsequent pregnancy.
Published on 21.09.2016 12:54, updated on 17.04.2020 19:05
Obstetrics. National leadership / ed. E.K. Ailamazyan, V.N. Serova, V.E. Radzinsky, G.M. Savelieva — 2015
Obstetrics / Ed. Savelieva G.M. — 2000
Early miscarriage: causes and prevention
Often, miscarriages in the early stages go unnoticed by a woman. In this case, menstruation is slightly delayed, and the discharge is more abundant than usual. If pregnancy is diagnosed, then an early miscarriage is said to occur when it occurs between the 6th and 12th weeks.