Dis­eases of the bil­iary sys­tem are a large group of patholo­gies accom­pa­nied by var­i­ous eti­o­log­i­cal lesions of the liv­er, gall­blad­der and oth­er parts of the bil­iary tract. One of the most impor­tant points in the treat­ment of such dis­eases is the obser­vance of a spe­cial diet, which is nec­es­sar­i­ly pre­scribed in con­junc­tion with drug ther­a­py. In this arti­cle we will talk about diet num­ber 5a.

Patholo­gies of the bil­iary sys­tem are extreme­ly com­mon among the pop­u­la­tion. So, for exam­ple, in 2020, sci­en­tists from the Izhevsk State Med­ical Acad­e­my pub­lished a paper in which it was found that patients with acute chole­cys­ti­tis account for 20–25% of all gen­er­al sur­gi­cal patients.

General principles of the treatment table No. 5a

Diet No. 5a is pre­scribed for acute chole­cys­ti­tis, hepati­tis, as well as for exac­er­ba­tion of chron­ic inflam­ma­tion of the gall­blad­der or liv­er. In addi­tion, such a diet is indi­cat­ed for the acute peri­od of cholelithi­a­sis, liv­er cir­rho­sis with­out decom­pen­sa­tion, after removal of the gall­blad­der. The main dif­fer­ence between this treat­ment table and the basic diet No. 5 lies in the greater spar­ing of the organs of the bil­iary sys­tem.

First of all, prod­ucts that enhance the process­es of fer­men­ta­tion and putre­fac­tion in the intestines, food con­tain­ing a large amount of coarse fiber are exclud­ed. A sick per­son should lim­it the intake of fats and salt, prod­ucts that stim­u­late bile secre­tion.

The rec­om­mend­ed diet is frac­tion­al (5 or 6 times a day in small por­tions). Food can be steamed or boiled. In rare cas­es, baked dish­es with­out a rough crust are allowed. The food con­sumed should be crushed, ground.

Anoth­er impor­tant point is the tem­per­a­ture regime. Meals should be warm, not too hot and not too cold.

Which foods are allowed and which are not?

Which foods are allowed and which are not?

To begin with, let’s look at what food should be dis­card­ed while fol­low­ing the diet num­ber 5a. Pro­hib­it­ed prod­ucts include:

  • any fresh bread, bak­ery prod­ucts made from rye flour, rich, puff pas­try;
  • canned veg­eta­bles, onions, gar­lic, white cab­bage, radish, legumes;
  • mush­rooms and nuts;
  • mil­let groats;
  • grape;
  • fat­ty dairy and sour-milk prod­ucts;
  • store-bought sauces and sea­son­ings;
  • con­fec­tionery;
  • meat and fish of fat­ty vari­eties, canned meat or fish, smoked meats;
  • alco­hol, cof­fee, car­bon­at­ed drinks.

Veg­eta­bles such as cau­li­flower, pota­toes, car­rots, zuc­chi­ni can be intro­duced into the diet of a sick per­son. From fruits, pref­er­ence should be giv­en to ripe and sweet apples and bananas. It is also allowed to use var­i­ous cere­als, for exam­ple, from buck­wheat, semoli­na, rice or oat­meal. Por­ridge should be boiled in water with the addi­tion of milk, grind to a semi-liq­uid con­sis­ten­cy.

In addi­tion, lean meats and fish are allowed, served in the form of cut­lets or a piece. Dried wheat bread, low-fat sour-milk prod­ucts, veg­etable broth soups with grat­ed veg­eta­bles — all this can be eat­en.

From drinks, pref­er­ence should be giv­en to min­er­al water with­out gas, nat­ur­al veg­etable or fruit juices, com­potes, herbal decoc­tions.

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