Hygiene is one of the important branches of medicine
Hygiene is a science that covers almost all aspects of human life. From the ancient Greek, hygiene is “ὑγιεινός”, which means “healthy” in translation. There are several definitions of this term, but to generalize, this science studies everything related to maintaining and improving health.
Hygiene includes many sections: hygiene of children and adolescents, hygiene of food, body, housing, etc.
Basic Hygiene Research Methods
To obtain an evidence base, certain methods are used in any science. In the case of hygiene, this is:
- epidemiological control, which allows you to find out such indicators as the birth rate, morbidity scale, mortality, etc.;
- sanitary inspection, during which special tools are used, as well as interviews. A certain segment of the population is being studied (students of general education schools or higher educational institutions, factory or office workers, etc.). In conclusion, conclusions are drawn and a report is drawn up;
- sanitary experiments, without which no science can do. Experiments conducted in the laboratory, allow you to obtain the necessary information, which is the basis for the implementation of certain rules and regulations;
- educational and teaching methods. The information received on hygiene issues must be conveyed to the masses, choosing the ideal presentation format, the right words. After all, all people, regardless of age, place of residence, religion, must adhere to hygiene standards in order to preserve not only their own health, but also the health of the entire nation.
The main tasks of hygiene
The main tasks facing the science of hygiene are:
- collection of the maximum amount of information on the impact of the environment on the human body;
- introduction of rules and control over their observance;
- development of health standards;
- organization of preventive measures.
The Importance of Personal Hygiene
The goal of public hygiene is to improve the health of all miles of the population. In contrast, personal hygiene is needed to keep the human body healthy and increase the life expectancy of an individual.
No matter how global the achievements in the field of public hygiene, the goals will not be achieved if a single individual neglects personal hygiene. We are talking about the observance of the daily routine, rest, balanced nutrition, cleanliness of the skin, hair, mouth, getting rid of unhealthy habits, etc. Negligent regular attitude to hygiene rules over time leads to health problems, deterioration in appearance, chronic fatigue etc.
Personal and public hygiene are strongly linked. For example, the health of many people can be adversely affected by the failure to comply with hygiene requirements by just one person. This is especially true when it comes to professions that involve direct contact with a large number of people.
Maintaining cleanliness of the body is extremely important, because it is the skin that protects the human body from the harmful effects of environmental factors. In addition to protection, the skin performs a number of functions. We are talking about thermoregulatory, metabolic, respiratory, secretory, etc.
It is recommended to take a shower every day, using water at a temperature of about 38 ° C. Regular and complete body hygiene prevents the risk of many diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, etc. The fact is that at least 400 ml of sweat is released through the skin per day (this is at room temperature, and much more in the heat) and about 40 g fat. If they are not washed off, then the skin will become a favorable habitat for various pathogens.
Remember that exposed areas of the body — hands, feet, nails need special care. Wherever you are, take care of the hygiene of your palms and nails, because germs from your hands can easily get on your food.
Wash your hands not only after, but also before visiting the toilet room, before eating, after contact with smaller brothers, even if they are pets.
On the road, also do not forget about body hygiene, wipe the skin of your hands with wet wipes, and disinfect with special products. They are produced in the form of sprays, which is very convenient to use. Be sure to wash your feet every day. To reduce sweating, use soap and lukewarm water while washing.
Oral hygiene is the care of the oral cavity, which necessarily includes the removal of plaque from the teeth, in order to prevent various diseases. Many of them are caused by flying. Oral hygiene is both personal and professional.
During the professional, procedures are carried out aimed at removing plaque, teeth and fillings are polished, and applications are also performed. Patients must be told about the basic techniques and methods of hygiene, and if necessary, they are shown how to do everything correctly.
Cleaning is carried out using modern systems that gently remove plaque, as well as stains resulting from drinking caffeinated drinks, smoking and food products with coloring pigments. One of the most popular cleaning systems today is AirFlow. During the procedure, soda powder, a strong jet of water and compressed air are used.
Mineralized (hard) plaque that forms on the gums and under them, which is called stones, is removed using an ultrasound machine. Be sure to take into account the fact that many stones cannot be removed at a time. It will take several sessions to get a lasting result.
The frequency of professional cleaning depends on many factors. First of all, it is the intensity of stone formation and personal hygiene of a person. On average, one to four times a year.
Cleaning by a specialist is mandatory, but it is not a guarantee of the ideal condition of the oral cavity. First of all, you need to take care of your teeth, gums, tongue every day with the help of personal hygiene items.
The habit of taking good care of your teeth should be instilled at an early age. In this case, the example of relatives is the main thing, as well as the advice of a specialist in oral hygiene.
Between regular visits to the dentist, each person should follow the recommendations that will help reduce the risk of caries and various oral diseases.
- Brush your teeth at least twice a day, and be sure to use a special floss to clean the spaces between them.
- Never use someone else’s toothbrush.
- Try to minimize snacking between main meals. Rinse your mouth with water after eating.
- Use mouthwash after brushing your teeth. When choosing it, be guided by the advice of a dentist.
- To choose products for personal oral hygiene (brushes for interdental spaces, irrigators, pastes and brushes, threads, etc.), it is better to contact a trusted clinic.
Personal care products
Preparations, the use of which allows you to strengthen, as well as maintain health, and are used by people almost every day throughout their lives, are classified as personal hygiene products.
They are classified according to their purpose:
- for the care of the skin of the hands, feet, face, body, intimate hygiene. These are all kinds of gels, foams, soaps, mousses …
- for hair care. Personal hygiene products should be selected taking into account the type of curls. They are normal (shiny, lively, elastic), dry (thin, split, without shine), oily (seem stale within a few hours after the washing procedure), mixed type (fatty at the roots, dry closer to the tips). By choosing the right hygiene products, you can significantly improve the condition of your hair, regardless of type and condition;
- for oral care. These are pastes, threads, various rinses, toothpicks, dental wipes, etc.
Also, personal hygiene products include cotton products (sticks, disks and balls), napkins, paper handkerchiefs, diapers.
Intimate hygiene of a woman
Women’s health depends on how conscientiously the fair sex relates to personal hygiene, especially intimate ones.
The vagina is a self-cleaning system, but despite this, it is necessary to regularly remove the waste products of the glands and various impurities from the genitals (external). You need to wash at least once a day. If possible, this procedure should also be carried out after the toilet, and on the days of menstruation when replacing tampons and pads. Intimate hygiene involves the use of a separate towel that needs to be washed frequently.
Since the vaginal flora does not pose any danger to the intestines, the hands should move towards the anus when washing. Try to keep bacteria from the anus area away from the genitals. By the way, this rule must also be observed when using napkins or toilet paper.
Particles of mucus, liquid discharge, dust are easily washed off with ordinary water, which means that for intimate hygiene it is not necessary to use gel cleansing products or soap every time. The composition of such products includes surfactants that break down fat molecules. Their frequent use can lead to the destruction of the hydrolipidic protective film of the skin.
Important: you need to use soap to cleanse the perianal area.
If it is unusual for you to wash your genitals with only water, then use special preparations for intimate hygiene. Also suitable for this purpose is baby soap. Products with an aggressive composition increase the risk of overdrying of the mucosa. This can cause excessive reproduction of bacteria, an increase in their norm, which will lead to increased secretions, an unpleasant odor. In other words, trying to do the best will only make things worse.
Women’s intimate hygiene items
Before buying intimate hygiene products, it is better to consult a pharmacist or doctor. Such preparations are quite mild, they often do not include flavorings and dyes in their composition, in order to avoid an allergic reaction and irritation, but moisturizing components are introduced. And most importantly, the acidity of such products is selected taking into account the characteristics of intimate areas. Neutral, acidic, alkaline gels are produced. Neutral — serve as an excellent replacement for soap. Alkaline and acidic — are used in the complex treatment of certain types of vaginitis and candidiasis, and can also be recommended by a doctor for the prevention of such diseases.
Panty liners are designed to protect underwear from secretions, and most of them cope with this function perfectly. But at the same time, the indicator of genital hygiene does not improve with their constant wearing, and sometimes even vice versa. Around the entrance to the vagina there are small glands, the secret of which is intensively absorbed by panty liners. Despite the fact that the work of the glands is accelerated, the vulva may lose its protective layer. This is fraught with the development of infections caused by fungi and bacteria. So only use them when necessary. Avoid using scented pads as they can cause itching and irritation.
Sometimes, to prevent such a common disease as thrush, it is enough to deal with your underwear and replace products made of synthetic materials with cotton, and also devote more time to intimate hygiene. Polyester briefs that fit tightly to the body can be harmful: they do not allow accumulated heat to escape, as a result, the skin sweats, creating a favorable environment for the development of fungi and bacteria.
Hygiene of children and adolescents
Hygiene of adolescents and children is one of the branches of hygiene that studies the problems of strengthening and protecting the health of the younger generation. Requirements and norms for the environment that surrounds the child are developed and established, conclusions are drawn about the body’s adaptability to external changes. Activities such as recreation, the educational process, sports activities, etc. are being captured. Preventive measures are being taken, the main task of which is to improve and, of course, preserve the healthy body of the child.
As one of the areas of medical science, the hygiene of children and adolescents arose in the middle of the nineteenth century. Among the schoolchildren of that time, cases of a number of diseases became more frequent. We are talking about neurasthenia, myopia, anemia, scoliosis, etc. Publications on hygiene, regarding the so-called “school” diseases, were aimed at eliminating and reducing their frequency. The authors gave clear recommendations for action and told what exactly needed to be changed in the usual way of life. The main causes of diseases included poor ventilation of the premises, insufficient lighting, the complexity of the educational process, etc.
Nowadays, the activity of hygiene of children and adolescents is based on the latest scientific developments and is an important part of the sanitary and epidemiological service of the state.