All novice athletes face the challenge of writing a quality fitness program that takes into account their main goals and level of physical fitness. There are many opinions regarding the required set of exercises, the number of approaches and repetitions, and more than one methodology has been developed for compiling programs for building mass. After reviewing them, you can independently create an effective fitness training scheme that is right for you.
Principles of fitness training
Regardless of the direction of fitness and the experience of the athlete, any training must obey certain principles. They reflect the changes that occur in the body when exerting physical activity on it, and their implementation contributes to the achievement of maximum results.
The main principles of training:
The effect of exercise is cumulative. That is, it is not the intensity and duration of a single training session that is decisive, but the systematic conduct of classes. This means that it is better to load the body only twice a week, but for a long time, than to train every other day for a month, and then take a break for the same period.
- Graduality and limit.
This principle means that physical activity during training should be increased gradually as strength and endurance indicators improve. At a certain point, the load should become maximum, which is a kind of impulse for the body to move to a new level of training.
- Wavy intensity.
The body needs a certain time to fully restore resources, which can be provided to it by alternating high, medium and low intensity workouts.
- The cycle of training.
This principle says that the entire training process must go through a certain cycle, which ends and starts again, but at a higher level.
With these principles in mind, you can increase the effectiveness of your fitness activities and get faster and better results.
The main elements of physical activity
Very often, when performing strength exercises, physical activity and its intensity are mistakenly determined by the weight of the weights used. In fact, this is a broader concept that includes the following components:
- the number of workouts per week — 2–3 sessions are considered optimal;
- the number of exercises in one lesson — depending on the muscle group being trained, no more than 5–8 fitness elements should be performed;
- the level of difficulty of exercises in terms of their technique or energy consumption;
- the number of approaches — total and for each exercise. As a standard, it is recommended to perform 3 approaches, however, here you need to take into account certain nuances regarding your level of physical fitness;
- the number of repetitions in one approach and in general for a workout — completely depends on the purpose of fitness, for example, when working on mass, it is recommended to do up to 15 repetitions;
- rest between sets, its duration and intensity — the break should not be long, a maximum of 3 minutes. At the same time, you should still continue to move, but with low intensity;
- weight weights — selected based on the goals and the selected number of repetitions so that the last one is performed with the last effort.
All these points characterize the load from a qualitative and quantitative side, determining how physically difficult fitness training will be for you. An important issue is the choice of exercises, of which there are a very large number. Among all the variety, you should choose about 25 of those that suit your level of training, and systematically include them in the fitness program.
The basics of building a fitness program
Many athletes looking to build muscle are wondering what is the optimal number of repetitions for a good fitness effect. Research suggests that the number of repetitions is not as important as the length of time the muscles stay under load. Maximum muscle growth is promoted by a minute continuous effect on them, which corresponds to about 10–15 repetitions. At the same time, all movements should be performed without stopping, without stopping at extreme points, but immediately continuing to work. The number of sets with this approach should be 3–5, while the greater the number of repetitions, the fewer sets you need to do, and vice versa.
After doing this for several months, your progress will slow down. During this period, you can go into a state of training plateau due to muscle getting used to the same type of load. Therefore, you should from time to time include multi-repetition workouts in your fitness when elements are performed in 3 sets of 20 repetitions. This technique develops slow muscle fibers and is most suitable for girls who have more of these fibers. Fast muscle fibers are more voluminous and are well developed according to the principle of mass training already described above.
An effective training technique that allows you to load all types of muscle fibers is the pyramid. It is suitable for athletes with any experience and even for beginners, it allows you to develop strength well and increase mass.
Such fitness training at its core consists in the fact that in the first approach, the exercises should be done 15 times, using a weight of 40% of your maximum. In each subsequent set, the weight of the weights increases by 15% of the maximum, and the number of repetitions decreases by 2–3 times. In the last approaches, you can reduce the step of weight growth, based on your feelings.
This is a straight pyramid scheme that is best applied to basic exercises at the very beginning of a fitness workout. According to the reverse pyramid scheme, it is convenient to pump biceps and triceps, first performing a small number of repetitions with your maximum weight.
There is also a pattern of negative repetitions. They got this name due to the fact that the main emphasis of the exercise falls on the negative phase of the movement, i.e. lowering the projectile. The number of repetitions here should not be more than 10, but the weight of the weights can reach 140% of the maximum. In addition, such fitness activities are traumatic, so it is important to have at least two partners nearby to help lift the projectile.