Push-ups are basic exercises with which you can exert intense physical stress on the muscles of the chest and the entire shoulder girdle. The diversity of this training movement makes it possible to include it in classes designed for both beginners and people with extensive experience in fitness.
Classic technique and the benefits of push-up fitness training
By including push-ups in their various variations in fitness classes, you can work out the following muscle groups:
- chest muscles;
- triceps and other shoulder muscles;
- small muscles of the palms and forearms;
- back muscles;
In addition to providing a dynamic and isometric load on the above muscles, regular fitness training with push-ups leads to such positive results:
- the volume and mass of target muscles increases;
- increase in strength and endurance;
- physical fitness improves.
The traditional technique of push-ups from the floor involves the following sequence of actions:
- Acceptance of the starting position in the exercise.
Get on your knees or bend so low that you can rest your palms on the floor, placing them approximately under the shoulder joints. Take the lower limbs back and lean on the socks. The distance between the feet can be 20–30 cm. The head should be raised, and the back, stomach and buttocks should be strained to avoid deflections and sagging. The whole body should form a straight line.
- active phase.
Inhaling, lower the torso to the floor by bending the upper limbs at the elbows, which should be directed back. You need to go down so low that the chest almost touches the floor surface.
- Negative phase in the exercise.
Having reached the lowest position, linger in it for a second, starting to exhale at the peak of the load. During the exhalation, it is necessary to straighten the elbows and take the starting position for the next repetition.
Features of fitness for weight
In order to stimulate the active growth of the muscle mass of the chest and shoulder girdle with the help of push-ups, it is necessary to take into account the following nuances when organizing fitness classes and directly performing the elements:
- the emphasis of the load on a particular muscle group depends on the setting of the palms.
If the brushes are set wide, then the muscle fibers of the chest are actively contracted, and if they are narrow, then the entire load is focused on the triceps. Push-ups in the traditional technique, which assumes a distance between the palms equal to the width of the shoulder joints, can evenly work out both the chest and shoulders. To strengthen your wrists during fitness training, you need to do push-ups on your fingers or fists. Therefore, the type of push-ups included in the program must be consistent with its purpose;
- to increase muscle mass, the number of repetitions in one approach should be no more than 15.
With more repetitions of one exercise, muscle development stops, but endurance is trained. In the case when it is necessary to increase muscle mass with push-ups, it is recommended to perform 4 sets of 12 repetitions, regardless of the type of push-ups chosen;
- In addition to the number of repetitions, the process of muscle development is also affected by the use of additional weight in fitness training.
This pattern is explained by the principle of increasing the volume of muscle tissue. Under the influence of heavy physical activity, myofibrils — muscle fibers — are injured, and in the process of regeneration of these microtraumas, new cells are formed. Consequently, the fibers lengthen and thicken, and the muscles grow;
- the process of muscle development described above requires a constant increase in load.
Otherwise, the muscles adapt to the impact, microfractures no longer occur in the myofibrils, and new cells are not formed for their regeneration. To increase the load when doing push-ups, it is necessary to complicate the technique and use weights in exercises. When fixing additional weight on the body, you need to do it as reliably as possible and observe all safety measures during work.
The nuances of performing exercises on the uneven bars
In addition to push-ups from the floor, fitness training to build muscle mass in the chest and shoulders should include work on the uneven bars or in the gravitron, an analogue of this track and field equipment, which is most often used in the gym. The technique of push-ups on the uneven bars may vary slightly depending on which muscles you need to exert the maximum load on.
To work out the pectoral muscles in fitness classes, it is necessary to include such a variant of push-ups on the uneven bars:
- Taking an emphasis on the crossbars, tilt the body as far forward as possible, while maintaining the position of the forearms, perpendicular to the floor. The lower limbs can be slightly bent and crossed at the ankles to reduce the risk of torso swaying during core work. When performing the exercise, you need to point your legs down all the time, and not back.
- Inhaling, slowly lower the torso into the space between the bars, while moving the elbows to the sides. You need to go down until the moment at which the shoulders are in the same parallel with the floor.
- After a short pause in the lower position, as you exhale, gently straighten your elbows and rise to the upper position. In order to avoid shifting the load on the triceps in the exercise, you should not lift the body from the slope and bring your elbows closer to it.
In order to stimulate the growth of triceps muscle mass during fitness, you need to perform this type of push-ups:
- Hang on the crossbars so that the body is perpendicular to the floor. The gaze must be directed forward to avoid an involuntary tilt of the head down. The knees should be bent and the shins crossed.
- Taking a deep breath, slowly lower yourself down, bending your elbows and pulling them back. When the forearms are slightly below the parallel of the floor, pause for a second.
- Exhaling, slowly pull yourself up due to the intensive work of the muscles of the shoulders. Without stopping in the upper starting position, repeat the exercise.