How to eat right with diabetes: menu principles

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Dia­betes mel­li­tus scares peo­ple not only with ter­ri­ble con­se­quences, but also with dietary restric­tions. After all, com­pli­ca­tions may not hap­pen, and sweets are not allowed right now. Yes, the diet food is bor­ing. Is it so? Not real­ly! Nutri­tion for dia­bet­ics can and should be tasty and var­ied.

What can you eat with diabetes

What can you eat with diabetes

Dia­betes mel­li­tus impos­es some restric­tions. Nutri­tion in this dis­ease is based on the prin­ci­ples of the treat­ment table (diet) No. 9 accord­ing to Pevzn­er. In accor­dance with this diet, the amount of quick­ly digestible car­bo­hy­drates and ani­mal fats should be lim­it­ed, the calo­rie con­tent of the menu should be reduced, and the amount of veg­etable fiber and dietary fiber should be increased. You need to eat small meals and often (5–7 times a day) to keep your blood glu­cose lev­els sta­ble. It is allowed to cook food in all ways that do not increase its calo­rie con­tent — bake, stew, boil. The amount of salt in the diet should be lim­it­ed.

    Limit animal fats.

Since dia­bet­ic patients often also have a vio­la­tion of fat (lipid) metab­o­lism, they need to lim­it the intake of ani­mal fats. Fats are also exclud­ed because they “pre­vent” insulin from work­ing effec­tive­ly and reduc­ing blood glu­cose. Meat, fish, dairy prod­ucts should be low in fat. The excep­tion is red fish — its meat con­tains omega‑3 acids that improve lipid metab­o­lism, so this fish must be in the diet. But­ter should be exclud­ed from the menu, and among cheeses, pref­er­ence should be giv­en to low-fat Adyghe. The num­ber of eggs should be reduced to one per day, as they are rich in cho­les­terol.

    Replace “fast” carbohydrates.

Instead of “fast” car­bo­hy­drates with a high glycemic index, long-digest­ing (“com­plex”) car­bo­hy­drates are offered, since they do not cause blood sug­ar spikes. Com­plex car­bo­hy­drates include:

    legumes,
    cereals (excluding rice),
    gray flour pasta,
    vegetables (except potatoes, carrots and beets),
    some fruits and berries.

The best fruits for dia­bet­ics are apples and pears, which con­tain pectin. Pectin pro­motes the removal of cho­les­terol and tox­ins, nor­mal­izes metab­o­lism, low­ers blood glu­cose lev­els. Many peo­ple think that with dia­betes you can safe­ly eat water­mel­on and mel­on, but this opin­ion is erro­neous. Mel­ons and water­mel­ons have a high glycemic index, and there­fore their amount in the diet should be lim­it­ed.

Veg­eta­bles are most­ly low glycemic and rich in vit­a­mins. The fiber con­tained in them improves the diges­tion process, slows down the absorp­tion of glu­cose and removes cho­les­terol. In addi­tion, veg­eta­bles are low in calo­ries, and you can eat a lot of them with­out risk­ing weight gain. But pota­toes, car­rots, and beets should be con­sumed in mod­er­a­tion, as they have a high glycemic index. A large amount of glu­cose con­tained in them leads to a jump in sug­ar lev­els and an exac­er­ba­tion of hunger.

Nutri­tion in dia­betes allows fruc­tose, as it is absorbed slow­ly and does not cause a sharp increase in blood glu­cose. Despite this, fruc­tose is high in calo­ries, and there­fore sweets based on it should be eat­en in mod­er­a­tion. If fruc­tose is con­sumed in large quan­ti­ties, it is not uti­lized by the liv­er and is deposit­ed in fat stores. And one more “but”: when using fruc­tose, the brain does not receive a sati­ety sig­nal, since the hor­mone lep­tin, which sup­press­es appetite, is not pro­duced.

Dietary restrictions in diabetes

Dietary restrictions in diabetes

The diet for dia­betes has a num­ber of restric­tions, and they are dif­fer­ent for dif­fer­ent types of dia­betes.

In type 1 dia­betes, the body does not pro­duce its own insulin, and the intro­duc­tion of an arti­fi­cial­ly syn­the­sized hor­mone should replace the nat­ur­al pro­duc­tion. There­fore, in the diet of a type 1 dia­bet­ic, car­bo­hy­drates should be present in a uni­form amount through­out the day. You need to con­trol their num­ber in order to cal­cu­late the cor­rect dose of insulin for injec­tion. In addi­tion, nutri­tion should be high in calo­ries and pre­vent weight loss, which patients with the first type of dia­betes are prone to.

In type 2 dia­betes, patients must mon­i­tor their own weight and fight obe­si­ty. There­fore, the calo­rie con­tent should be reduced, as well as the amount of car­bo­hy­drates con­sumed — there should be as many of them as the body is able to digest due to its own insulin.

What is strict­ly not rec­om­mend­ed for dia­bet­ics? Diet in dia­betes pro­hibits foods that con­tribute to the rapid increase in blood glu­cose lev­els. They have a high glycemic index:

    Sugar, jam, honey.
    Goods and pastries.
    Juices and sparkling water.
    Grapes and bananas.

Alco­hol in dia­betes is also pro­hib­it­ed, because it not only dra­mat­i­cal­ly changes the amount of sug­ar in the blood, but also pre­vents glyco­gen stores in the liv­er from being bro­ken down into glu­cose.

Diet for diabetes: a possible menu

Diet for diabetes: a possible menu

Con­trary to the well-known myth about bland and taste­less food for patients, a dia­bet­ic diet can be var­ied, and dish­es can be appe­tiz­ing. What can dia­bet­ics cook and what should a dai­ly diet look like?

The list of pos­si­ble meals for dia­betes looks like this:

    Breakfast — low-fat cottage cheese with berries or cottage cheese casserole, scrambled eggs from 1 egg and low-fat milk, oatmeal.
    Second breakfast — apple, pear, berries (except grapes). Milk jelly or souffle on fructose.
    Lunch: pickle with pearl barley, fish soup, borscht with meat. Beef goulash, liver stew. Buckwheat, durum wheat pasta, boiled cauliflower or broccoli. Black or whole grain bread. Vegetables (zucchini, eggplant, tomatoes), stewed with turkey.
    Snack: yogurt, kefir or an egg. Fruits (except bananas). Fruit salad with yogurt.
    Dinner: steam cutlet, stewed chicken, stewed cabbage, barley porridge. Vinaigrette (a little). Ragout of cauliflower, zucchini, eggplant.
    Before going to bed — kefir, yogurt, yogurt, rosehip broth or compote without sugar.

Since the diet for dia­betes should be fol­lowed for life, in order to avoid break­downs, try to diver­si­fy your diet with mouth-water­ing, beau­ti­ful dish­es. Healthy must be deli­cious! Meat­loaf, fish steaks, puff pas­tries of meat and veg­eta­bles, grilled meat and chick­en, some fruc­tose sweets, jel­lies and whole grain flour-based berry pies will help to make your menu tasty and var­ied.

Endocrinol­o­gy. nation­al guid­ance / Ed. I.I. Dedo­va, G.A. Mel­nichenko - 2012

By Yraa

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