Diseases of the biliary system are a large group of pathologies accompanied by various etiological lesions of the liver, gallbladder and other parts of the biliary tract. One of the most important points in the treatment of such diseases is the observance of a special diet, which is necessarily prescribed in conjunction with drug therapy. In this article we will talk about diet number 5a.
Pathologies of the biliary system are extremely common among the population. So, for example, in 2020, scientists from the Izhevsk State Medical Academy published a paper in which it was found that patients with acute cholecystitis account for 20–25% of all general surgical patients.
General principles of the treatment table No. 5a
Diet No. 5a is prescribed for acute cholecystitis, hepatitis, as well as for exacerbation of chronic inflammation of the gallbladder or liver. In addition, such a diet is indicated for the acute period of cholelithiasis, liver cirrhosis without decompensation, after removal of the gallbladder. The main difference between this treatment table and the basic diet No. 5 lies in the greater sparing of the organs of the biliary system.
First of all, products that enhance the processes of fermentation and putrefaction in the intestines, food containing a large amount of coarse fiber are excluded. A sick person should limit the intake of fats and salt, products that stimulate bile secretion.
The recommended diet is fractional (5 or 6 times a day in small portions). Food can be steamed or boiled. In rare cases, baked dishes without a rough crust are allowed. The food consumed should be crushed, ground.
Another important point is the temperature regime. Meals should be warm, not too hot and not too cold.
Which foods are allowed and which are not?
To begin with, let’s look at what food should be discarded while following the diet number 5a. Prohibited products include:
any fresh bread, bakery products made from rye flour, rich, puff pastry;
canned vegetables, onions, garlic, white cabbage, radish, legumes;
mushrooms and nuts;
fatty dairy and sour-milk products;
store-bought sauces and seasonings;
meat and fish of fatty varieties, canned meat or fish, smoked meats;
alcohol, coffee, carbonated drinks.
Vegetables such as cauliflower, potatoes, carrots, zucchini can be introduced into the diet of a sick person. From fruits, preference should be given to ripe and sweet apples and bananas. It is also allowed to use various cereals, for example, from buckwheat, semolina, rice or oatmeal. Porridge should be boiled in water with the addition of milk, grind to a semi-liquid consistency.
In addition, lean meats and fish are allowed, served in the form of cutlets or a piece. Dried wheat bread, low-fat sour-milk products, vegetable broth soups with grated vegetables — all this can be eaten.
From drinks, preference should be given to mineral water without gas, natural vegetable or fruit juices, compotes, herbal decoctions.