What nutrition nutritionists consider right: a complete guide for those who want to eat right

By Yraa #able, #absolutely, #absorption, #accelerating, #acceptable, #accompanied, #according, #accumulation, #acidity, #acids, #actively, #activity, #acute, #adapt, #adapted, #adapting, #add, #added, #additional, #additives, #adhere, #adult, #advance, #advanced, #advice, #advise, #advised, #affect, #afternoon, #against, #age, #allergic, #allergies, #allergy, #allow, #allowed, #allows, #almost, #already, #alternative, #always, #amount, #animal, #another, #any, #appear, #appearance, #applications, #applies, #apply, #approximate, #approximately, #area, #areas, #around, #arrangement, #asparagus, #associated, #athletes, #attached, #attack, #attention, #attractiveness, #available, #average, #avocado, #avocados, #babies, #baby, #bake, #baked, #bakery, #balance, #balanced, #bars, #based, #basic, #basis, #beans, #beautiful, #beauty, #become, #becomes, #bed, #been, #beginning, #begins, #being, #beneficial, #berries, #between, #birth, #blood, #bmi, #Body, #boiled, #both, #bread, #breast, #breastfeeding, #bring, #brown, #buckwheat, #building, #butter, #c, #calcium, #calculate, #calculated, #called, #caloric, #calorie, #calories, #camel, #canned, #cannot, #carbohydrate, #carbohydrates, #cardio, #Care, #carefully, #caring, #carried, #category, #cause, #central, #century, #cereals, #certain, #changing, #characteristics, #charge, #chemical, #chicken, #child, #children, #chocolate, #choice, #choose, #choosing, #chopped, #chosen, #chronic, #classic, #classified, #Clear, #Clinical, #cognitive, #cold, #combat, #combination, #combined, #come, #coming, #common, #compiled, #compiling, #complete, #completely, #complications, #components, #composition, #comprehensive, #computer, #condition, #conditions, #confectionery, #consequences, #consider, #considered, #consists, #constant, #consult, #consume, #consumed, #consumption, #contact, #contain, #containing, #contains, #content, #continues, #contraindications, #Control, #cook, #cooked, #cooking, #corn, #correct, #corresponds, #cost, #costs, #cottage, #countries, #covered, #crackers, #create, #creates, #cucumber, #cut, #daily, #dairy, #danger, #days, #decide, #decreased, #decreases, #deep, #deficiency, #degrees, #delay, #delicious, #depend, #depends, #designed, #dessert, #detailed, #determine, #develop, #developed, #developing, #development, #diabetes, #diarrhea, #did, #diet, #dietary, #differ, #differences, #different, #difficult, #difficulties, #digest, #digestive, #direction, #directly, #disease, #diseases, #dish, #dishes, #disorders, #distinguished, #distribute, #distributed, #divided, #doctors, #down, #draw, #dried, #drug, #dry, #due, #duration, #e, #each, #easiest, #east, #Easy, #eat, #eaten, #eating, #eats, #effect, #effective, #effectiveness, #effects, #effort, #egg, #eggs, #elderly, #element, #eliminate, #emotional, #emphasis, #energy, #engaged, #enhance, #enjoy, #enough, #enriched, #enter, #entire, #especially, #essential, #etc, #european, #even, #evening, #every, #everything, #examination, #example, #exceed, #exceeds, #excellent, #excess, #existing, #experience, #experts, #extreme, #fact, #factor, #factors, #falls, #family, #fast, #fat, #fats, #fatty, #feed, #feeding, #feels, #few, #fewer, #fiber, #fibers, #field, #fifteen, #find, #finished, #fish, #fitness, #floor, #flour, #focused, #follow, #followed, #follows, #food, #foods, #forced, #forget, #formula, #found, #fresh, #fried, #frozen, #fruit, #frying, #full, #fully, #functional, #functionality, #functioning, #functions, #g, #gain, #gastritis, #gastrointestinal, #gender, #general, #generation, #gently, #girls, #give, #given, #gives, #go, #goals, #Good, #gradually, #grain, #grains, #great, #greatly, #greens, #ground, #groups, #grow, #growing, #grown, #Growth, #guarantee, #guaranteed, #guide, #habits, #hair, #half, #handful, #happen, #happens, #happy, #hard, #having, #he, #health, #Healthy, #healthyinfo, #heart, #height, #help, #her, #high, #highest, #him, #his, #holidays, #Home, #homemade, #hormonal, #hot, #hour, #however, #human, #hunger, #hungry, #hypertension, #ideal, #importance, #impossible, #improve, #improvement, #improving, #include, #includes, #increases, #increasing, #independently, #index, #indicated, #indispensable, #individual, #infectious, #ingredients, #instructions, #insufficient, #intake, #intended, #intense, #intensity, #international, #intestinal, #intolerance, #introduction, #involves, #iron, #irregular, #japanese, #journal, #juice, #junk, #just, #kcal, #keep, #key, #kidney, #kind, #know, #laboratory, #lack, #last, #later, #lead, #leading, #leafy, #lean, #learn, #learned, #learning, #least, #leaves, #legumes, #lengthen, #less, #let, #level, #levels, #lies, #lifestyle, #Light, #limit, #limited, #list, #little, #live, #lives, #long, #longer, #lose, #losing, #loss, #low, #lower, #lunch, #made, #magnesium, #mainly, #maintain, #maintaining, #maintains, #maintenance, #making, #malnutrition, #man, #mass, #material, #materials, #meal, #meals, #mean, #measures, #meats, #Medical, #mediterranean, #Men, #mental, #menu, #method, #methods, #microelements, #microflora, #middle, #milk, #million, #minerals, #minimum, #minute, #mistakes, #mix, #mixture, #mobile, #modern, #moment, #moments, #monitor, #month, #mood, #moreover, #mother, #mothers, #much, #muscle, #must, #national, #natural, #naturally, #nature, #needed, #needs, #new, #newborn, #normal, #normally, #note, #nothing, #nuances, #numerous, #nursing, #nutrients, #nutrition, #nutritional, #nutritionist, #nutritionists, #oatmeal, #obese, #obesity, #observed, #offer, #office, #Oil, #oils, #old, #older, #olive, #ones, #operation, #opportunity, #optimal, #option, #options, #organic, #organism, #organize, #organs, #our, #overeating, #overweight, #pancakes, #paper, #parallel, #parents, #part, #particular, #parts, #passed, #passes, #pasta, #pathological, #pathologies, #pathology, #patients, #people, #per, #period, #periodically, #pevzner, #photo, #physical, #physical activity, #physically, #piece, #place, #placed, #plan, #planning, #plant, #plate, #play, #plays, #pleasant, #plenty, #points, #polyunsaturated, #popular, #population, #pork, #porridge, #possibility, #poultry, #Power, #practice, #pregnancy, #pregnant, #prepare, #prepared, #preparing, #prescribed, #presence, #pressed, #prevent, #preventive, #prevents, #primary, #principles, #problems, #procedures, #proceed, #process, #processed, #processes, #processing, #produce, #product, #production, #Products, #Professional, #programs, #prohibited, #prolong, #prolonged, #proper, #properly, #properties, #proportion, #protect, #protection, #protein, #proteins, #proven, #provide, #provided, #provoke, #prunes, #purpose, #put, #quality, #question, #quinoa, #quite, #range, #rate, #rather, #ratio, #raw, #reactions, #read, #ready, #real, #reason, #receive, #receives, #recipe, #recipes, #recommend, #recommended, #recovery, #Reduce, #reduced, #reducing, #refrigerator, #regardless, #region, #regular, #regularly, #regulated, #relieve, #remain, #replace, #require, #required, #requirements, #requires, #research, #reserves, #resorting, #restrictions, #result, #rice, #rich, #right, #risk, #role, #rule, #rules, #rye, #salad, #salads, #sale, #salt, #sauces, #sausages, #say, #scheme, #scientific, #scientists, #sea, #seafood, #seasonal, #second, #sedentary, #seeds, #seem, #selected, #serve, #served, #serving, #set, #several, #sex, #shakes, #she, #shelf, #short, #shown, #side, #significant, #significantly, #signs, #simple, #simply, #situation, #six, #Skin, #slow, #slows, #small, #smoked, #smoking, #snack, #snacks, #soda, #solve, #some, #sometimes, #somewhat, #soups, #source, #sources, #special, #specialists, #specific, #speed, #spend, #spent, #spices, #spread, #stage, #standard, #starch, #start, #starting, #statistics, #steamed, #step, #stewed, #stick, #still, #stop, #stored, #stores, #strawberries, #stretch, #strict, #strictly, #strong, #studies, #study, #substances, #successful, #suffer, #sugar, #suitable, #summer, #supplements, #sweet, #sweets, #symptoms, #system, #systems, #t, #table, #take, #taking, #talk, #task, #taste, #tbsp, #tea, #term, #terrible, #tests, #therapeutic, #therapist, #therefore, #things, #think, #thinking, #third, #those, #thousand, #three, #throughout, #thyroid, #tissue, #today, #together, #total, #tract, #traditional, #train, #training, #trans, #treatment, #treatments, #true, #try, #two, #type, #Types, #under, #underweight, #undesirable, #unhealthy, #universal, #unpleasant, #us, #used, #useful, #uses, #using, #value, #values, #varied, #varieties, #variety, #various, #vegetable, #very, #vessels, #vital, #vitamin, #vitamins, #walls, #want, #wants, #was, #wash, #Water, #way, #wear, #week, #weeks, #weight, #were, #while, #who, #whole, #why, #will, #woman, #Women, #working, #world, #would, #year, #yogurt, #yolk, #zinc

Nutri­tion is an indis­pens­able con­di­tion for the exis­tence of life. It con­sists in the intake of nutri­ents and ener­gy nec­es­sary for the func­tion­ing of all sys­tems. From how and what plants, ani­mals or humans eat, their growth, devel­op­ment, health and qual­i­ty of life depend. That is why it is impor­tant that from the moment of its incep­tion, any organ­ism receives every­thing it needs. For humans, these are: water, car­bo­hy­drates, pro­teins, fats and a vari­ety of nutri­ents.

Adult nutrition

Not all adults get prop­er nutri­tion. The menu of most peo­ple, not sur­pris­ing­ly with an abun­dance of prod­ucts in stores, accord­ing to the Orga­ni­za­tion for Inter­na­tion­al Coop­er­a­tion and Devel­op­ment (OICD), the Food and Agri­cul­ture Orga­ni­za­tion of the Unit­ed Nations (FAO), con­sists of bread, cere­als, etc. food from grains and seeds.

More­over, about 1/8 of the pop­u­la­tion of our plan­et today is starv­ing, and this is 842 mil­lion peo­ple, main­ly inhab­it­ing the coun­tries of the Pacif­ic region, Asia and Cen­tral Africa. If you put them togeth­er, you get the com­bined pop­u­la­tion of the entire Euro­pean Union, Cana­da and the Unit­ed States. Most of the hun­gry live in rur­al areas, but in the cities there are quite a few peo­ple who are under­nour­ished.

In the Caribbean and Latin Amer­i­ca, hunger was curbed at the end of the last cen­tu­ry, and the num­ber of food inse­cure peo­ple in the region decreased. But just like in the 20th cen­tu­ry, at the begin­ning of this cen­tu­ry, accord­ing to FAO sta­tis­tics, hunger con­tin­ues to spread through­out the world.

In par­al­lel, the polar prob­lem of nutri­tion is devel­op­ing — the num­ber of peo­ple with one of the degrees of obe­si­ty or over­weight, whose body mass index (BMI) exceeds the per­mis­si­ble val­ues, is mul­ti­ply­ing. It would seem that these peo­ple should inhab­it pros­per­ous coun­tries with devel­oped economies, but in prac­tice the sit­u­a­tion is some­what dif­fer­ent: obe­si­ty has spread in coun­tries whose cit­i­zens have an aver­age lev­el of income. They already have plen­ty of cheap, low-qual­i­ty, processed food, but they still don’t know how to orga­nize prop­er nutri­tion.

Nutrition for women

A wom­an’s health and beau­ty depend on how well the wom­an’s diet is com­posed and bal­anced. The work of all organs and sys­tems, the effec­tive­ness of all meta­bol­ic, hor­mon­al process­es in the body can be reg­u­lat­ed by diet.

Healthy nutri­tion of a woman is a guar­an­tee not only of her well-being, labor pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, etc., but also the oppor­tu­ni­ty to pro­duce viable off­spring, to give the nec­es­sary nutri­tion to the child. If at child­bear­ing age a woman receives insuf­fi­cient essen­tial nutri­ents, is defi­cient, for exam­ple, in iron, B vit­a­mins and oth­er nutri­ents, the very pos­si­bil­i­ty of con­cep­tion is “in ques­tion”, dif­fi­cul­ties with bear­ing are guar­an­teed, and the birth of a healthy child, with­out any com­pli­ca­tions and patholo­gies, is almost impos­si­ble.

Nutrition for pregnant women

Nutrition for pregnant women

The nutri­tion menu of a woman dur­ing the peri­od of bear­ing a child should be cal­cu­lat­ed tak­ing into account the grow­ing needs for car­bo­hy­drates, pro­teins, fats and the entire spec­trum of bio­log­i­cal­ly active sub­stances that enter the body with food.

Just think about it: today, around 20 mil­lion babies around the world are born every year with signs of men­tal retar­da­tion and mal­for­ma­tions due to the fact that the moth­er’s nutri­tion dur­ing preg­nan­cy was insuf­fi­cient or incor­rect.

This does not mean at all that the expec­tant moth­er is oblig­ed to eat “for two”, as peo­ple like to say. The calo­rie con­tent of the diet of preg­nant women, the bal­ance of nutri­ents and nutri­ents is cal­cu­lat­ed accord­ing to the needs of the moth­er and child. The opti­mal diet for preg­nant women today is made up of the best nutri­tion­ists and spe­cial­ists in the field of clin­i­cal nutri­tion.

And not always the caloric con­tent of the diet of those who are expect­ing the birth of a child is grow­ing. It hap­pens that in order to reduce or stop the weight gain of a woman, even dur­ing preg­nan­cy, it is nec­es­sary to reduce the ener­gy val­ue of her diet.

Nutrition for nursing mothers

It is not enough to give a child life. It is nec­es­sary to pro­vide it with nutri­tion that will allow it to grow and devel­op prop­er­ly.

If a new­born receives moth­er’s milk, rec­og­nized by the med­ical com­mu­ni­ty as the best food for chil­dren from birth, it gives the baby up to six months every­thing nec­es­sary for life, active growth, and suc­cess­ful devel­op­ment. If it is impos­si­ble to breast­feed or if the moth­er is not lac­tat­ing, the new­born has to be giv­en spe­cial baby food.

Nutrition for women during menopause

Dur­ing menopause, it is impor­tant for a woman to fol­low prop­er nutri­tion, mon­i­tor the bal­ance of ener­gy intake and calo­rie con­sump­tion, and also include foods in the diet that help reg­u­late hor­mon­al lev­els, con­tain phy­toe­stro­gens that gen­tly cor­rect menopause symp­toms.

In the list of the most use­ful foods dur­ing menopause, foods that are rich in:

    fiber – vegetables, fruits, leafy greens, whole grains, beans, seeds, nuts, seaweed, etc.
    polyunsaturated fatty acids — sea fish, nuts, seeds, grains, vegetable oils, etc .;
    calcium — fish, lean meats, dairy products of normal and reduced fat content, leafy greens, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, etc .;
    magnesium — leafy greens, seaweed, nuts, etc.;
    tocopherol or vitamin E — vegetable oils, brown rice, leafy greens, avocados, legumes, etc.;
    boron — figs, raisins, prunes, asparagus, strawberries, peaches, etc.;
    vitamin C — fresh or frozen fruits and berries, leafy greens, vegetables.

Nutrition for older women

When a woman pass­es the menopause and cross­es the thresh­old of old age, her qual­i­ty of life direct­ly depends on what kind of nutri­tion she receives. A bal­anced and var­ied diet, made tak­ing into account the objec­tive state of the lady, the exist­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics of her health, pos­si­ble sys­temic patholo­gies and indi­vid­ual con­traindi­ca­tions, can reduce the risks of devel­op­ing meta­bol­ic dis­or­ders, car­diopatholo­gies, type 2 dia­betes mel­li­tus, obe­si­ty, senile demen­tia and many oth­er dis­eases asso­ci­at­ed with advanced age. age.

More­over, a healthy diet gives a real oppor­tu­ni­ty to delay the aging of the body, to pro­long an active life.

Nutrition for men

Nutrition for men

The “strong” half of human­i­ty needs more high-calo­rie nutri­tion than the “beau­ti­ful” half. For exam­ple, a man of work­ing age should con­sume an aver­age of 700 kcal more than a woman.

Nutrition of men of working age: professional features

Pro­fes­sion­al activ­i­ty leaves its imprints on the nutri­tion scheme, the ener­gy val­ue of food and men’s menus. Nat­u­ral­ly, work­ing at an office desk, at a com­put­er, requires few­er calo­ries than the hard phys­i­cal labor of road work­ers or min­ers. If for the first cat­e­go­ry, engaged in men­tal work (employ­ees, econ­o­mists, engi­neers, etc.), it is enough to receive 2700 kcal per day, then the ener­gy val­ue of the nutri­tion menu of the sec­ond cat­e­go­ry of men who work phys­i­cal­ly (load­ers, agri­cul­tur­al work­ers, etc.) should be about 4500 kcal.

For those who active­ly train, there is a spe­cial sports nutri­tion that allows you to meet ener­gy needs and needs for the main build­ing mate­r­i­al of mus­cle fibers — pro­teins.

Nutrition for older men

With age, the phys­i­cal activ­i­ty of a man decreas­es, the rate of meta­bol­ic process­es in his body slows down, which means that the need for ener­gy from food decreas­es. Nutri­tion should become even bet­ter than in youth. The first place in impor­tance is not the calo­rie con­tent of the menu, but cer­tain food require­ments. Any food source should serve not only to meet the require­ments for essen­tial nutri­ents, but also to help reduce the risks of cer­tain dis­eases, includ­ing:

    atherosclerosis;
    cardiopathologies;
    type 2 diabetes;
    metabolic syndrome;
    obesity;
    dementia, etc.

Children food

Children food

The most impor­tant fac­tor ensur­ing the devel­op­ment, growth and life of the child is prop­er nutri­tion. If the diet is bal­anced, gives enough ener­gy, meals are reg­u­lar, babies and old­er chil­dren active­ly grow up, learn about the world, learn new things, are healthy and hap­py.

For chil­dren of dif­fer­ent ages, their own nutri­tion cal­en­dar and the opti­mal calo­rie con­tent of the dai­ly menu are pro­vid­ed, and spe­cial health-improv­ing diets have been devel­oped. After all, nutri­tion per year is sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent from the menu of a preschool­er, and the diet of a pri­ma­ry school stu­dent is dif­fer­ent from the diet of a teenag­er with health issues. Pub­lic cater­ing, as a sys­tem, also pays great atten­tion to the needs of chil­dren. A child, start­ing from tod­dler age, is often forced to spend a long time and eat out­side the home. There are spe­cial cater­ing estab­lish­ments that are focused on preschool­ers and school­child­ren.

At the same time, it is bit­ter to real­ize that in eco­nom­i­cal­ly dis­ad­van­taged coun­tries:

    about 146 million children are underweight;
    more than 140 million are deficient in carotenoids;
    800 thousand — die annually from an acute shortage of zinc in the diet.

Infant Diet: Nutrition Calendar

A new­born who has come to life is not yet adapt­ed to the rather harsh con­di­tions of exis­tence, in com­par­i­son with those that were cre­at­ed for him in the womb. The nutri­tion of the child dur­ing this peri­od is also under­go­ing great changes. The kid has to learn to “get” his own food with the help of adults. At this young age, there are only two menu options: moth­er’s milk or spe­cial baby food.

In the first weeks of life, the dai­ly nutri­tion cal­en­dar allows the child to adapt to new envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions.

The first dif­fi­cul­ties are pos­si­ble. For each type and pow­er scheme, they can be “their own”.

It can be dif­fi­cult to orga­nize reg­u­lar breast­feed­ing, espe­cial­ly if a woman has become a moth­er for the first time, she has no expe­ri­ence of breast­feed­ing, milk is pro­duced irreg­u­lar­ly due to the effects of birth stress, or there are oth­er dif­fi­cul­ties with lac­ta­tion.

Not always cer­tain baby food is suit­able for a baby who is bot­tle-fed. Con­sid­er­ing that only in Moscow today every third child is born with an aller­gy or food intol­er­ance to cer­tain prod­ucts, it becomes clear that the nutri­tion of a child who, for what­ev­er rea­son, can­not receive moth­er’s milk, must be select­ed tak­ing into account indi­vid­ual needs, pos­si­ble health char­ac­ter­is­tics and con­traindi­ca­tions.

In the nutri­tion menu of breast­fed babies from 6 months, and for those who are bot­tle-fed — from 4–5, new prod­ucts that are com­mon for adults are grad­u­al­ly appear­ing.

Meals per year

The menu of a one-year-old child is still not the diet of an adult. The food in the year is quite var­ied, but not all foods that adults or preschool­ers con­sume are allowed. In addi­tion, there is a lim­it­ed set of accept­able food pro­cess­ing meth­ods, and all food must be pre-puri­fied.

The food cal­en­dar by day is no longer need­ed. Changes hap­pen about every month. There­fore, car­ing par­ents use the stan­dard month­ly nutri­tion cal­en­dar for young chil­dren. It is designed and for­mu­lat­ed by the best nutri­tion­ists and spe­cial­ists in the field of baby nutri­tion, tak­ing into account the func­tion­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of babies of dif­fer­ent ages, ener­gy needs and needs for cer­tain nutri­ents and nutri­ents.

Nutri­tion in a year under­goes month­ly small but impor­tant changes. Many foods appear in the diet:

    crackers, biscuits, bread;
    milk;
    lean meats, poultry, fish;
    vegetable oils;
    vegetables, leafy greens;
    some fruits;
    egg yolk;
    various varieties of pasta, cereals.

There is a list of unde­sir­able foods that often cause aller­gic reac­tions and food intol­er­ances, since the body of a one-year-old baby sim­ply does not have the nec­es­sary enzymes to digest them. From nutri­tion per year should be exclud­ed:

    chocolate and ready-made sweets;
    bee products;
    caviar and seafood;
    mushrooms;
    exotic fruits, etc.

Preschool child nutrition

Preschool child nutrition

Healthy nutri­tion for boys and girls of preschool age is select­ed accord­ing to the char­ac­ter­is­tics of devel­op­ment, phys­i­cal activ­i­ty, and taste pref­er­ences.

Already in 2013, accord­ing to the sta­tis­tics of the World Health Orga­ni­za­tion (WHO), about 42 mil­lion chil­dren under 5 years old in dif­fer­ent coun­tries of the world were over­weight. There­fore, it is impor­tant to con­trol the nutri­tion of each child so that the calo­rie con­tent of the dai­ly diet cor­re­sponds to the ener­gy costs of preschool­ers.

The pre­ferred diet plan, in which, in addi­tion to the three main meals, there are three “snacks”:

    lunch;
    afternoon tea;
    second dinner (optional).

This diet, pro­vid­ed that the diet is bal­anced and allows you to meet the ener­gy needs of the body, main­tains the opti­mal rate of meta­bol­ic process­es, pre­vents nutri­tion­al dis­or­ders.

Nutrition for schoolchildren

In 2014, accord­ing to WHO sta­tis­tics, almost 40% of the world’s child pop­u­la­tion (under 18) were over­weight. 13% reg­is­tered one of the degrees of obe­si­ty.

At the same time, devel­op­ing coun­tries remain, in which today up to 11 chil­dren die of hunger every minute. Dur­ing the year, a ter­ri­ble num­ber is recruit­ed — about 6 mil­lion.

Adults should super­vise the nutri­tion of a school-age child. It is impor­tant that a bal­anced and suf­fi­cient­ly high-calo­rie diet allows him to grow, devel­op phys­i­cal­ly, improve cog­ni­tive func­tions, study, play sports, etc. The home menu should be tasty and var­ied, include high-qual­i­ty pro­teins, “slow” car­bo­hy­drates, veg­etable fats.

Pub­lic cater­ing plays an essen­tial role in main­tain­ing the health of chil­dren, since many school­child­ren are forced to have lunch, and some­times break­fast, snacks, out­side the home: at school, sum­mer camp, sana­to­ri­um, etc. If a child is well fed in the school can­teen, he sim­ply will not wants to snack on a choco­late bar, chips or a ham­burg­er.

Therapeutic and preventive nutrition

For the treat­ment and pre­ven­tion of var­i­ous patho­log­i­cal con­di­tions and syn­dromes, a set of mea­sures is pro­vid­ed, among which a healthy diet occu­pies an impor­tant place. Treat­ment tables, devel­oped in the 30s of the last cen­tu­ry by one of the founders of dietol­ogy in the USSR, Pro­fes­sor Manuil Isaakievich Pevzn­er, are still rec­om­mend­ed in Rus­sia for feed­ing patients with var­i­ous dis­eases. There are fif­teen Pevzn­er health diets in total, and each of them meets the needs of cer­tain cat­e­gories of patients.

Goals and objectives of a healthy diet

Ther­a­peu­tic nutri­tion by day is one of the non-drug ther­a­peu­tic meth­ods of con­ser­v­a­tive treat­ment. It is used for a vari­ety of dis­eases.

The pur­pose of a healthy diet is:

    reducing the risk of developing pathology;
    improvement of the clinical picture of the disease;
    reducing the severity of pathological symptoms;
    relapse protection.

Who is therapeutic nutrition

Who is therapeutic nutrition

If you are absolute­ly healthy, this is not a rea­son for messy eat­ing. Every­one needs to try to eat healthy meals, beware of fast food and processed food.

How­ev­er, there is a cat­e­go­ry of cit­i­zens who require a spe­cial, rev­er­ent atti­tude to the diet. For them, prop­er nutri­tion, a menu that has cer­tain restric­tions and accents, is a way to main­tain shaky health, reduce the risk of devel­op­ing sys­temic patholo­gies, relieve unpleas­ant symp­toms, and elim­i­nate relaps­es of dis­eases. It is for these peo­ple that sys­tems of ther­a­peu­tic and pre­ven­tive nutri­tion or health-improv­ing diets accord­ing to Pevzn­er have been devel­oped.

What kind of nutri­tion is indi­cat­ed for this or that per­son is decid­ed by the ther­a­pist or med­ical spe­cial­ists.

How to make a medical nutrition menu

The nutri­tion menu for the treat­ment and pre­ven­tion of cer­tain patholo­gies involves the obser­vance of sev­er­al fun­da­men­tal prin­ci­ples:

    the choice of products is limited to the list of those allowed for a specific disease;
    all food must be organic;
    certain food processing methods are allowed;
    fried and smoked dishes are not shown to absolutely everyone;
    ready-made confectionery, sweet soda, processed foods and semi-finished products are not recommended;
    a nutrition calendar is compiled by day;
    there is an optimal nutrition scheme during the day;
    the optimal calorie content of the menu is calculated;
    healthy recipes are recommended.

At the same time, the dura­tion of the diet, the nuances of nutri­tion by day, recipes for healthy dish­es, etc. are select­ed tak­ing into account the indi­vid­ual char­ac­ter­is­tics of patients, based on an assess­ment of the objec­tive state and data from lab­o­ra­to­ry tests of each.

Ready meals for patients with various systemic pathologies

Today, it is pos­si­ble to adhere to a well­ness nutri­tion cal­en­dar not only with­in the walls of med­ical insti­tu­tions or at home, but also at work, in restau­rants, etc. Spe­cial cater­ing estab­lish­ments devel­op spe­cial lines of prod­ucts and dish­es for patients with var­i­ous patholo­gies, for exam­ple:

    with diabetes;
    cardio disorders;
    obesity;
    food intolerance to gluten;
    allergies to dairy products, etc.

Diet for patients with the most common pathologies

Diet for patients with the most common pathologies

Fif­teen Pevs­ner treat­ment tables offer a dai­ly nutri­tion­al cal­en­dar for patients with almost any dis­ease, grouped accord­ing to spe­cial needs and lim­i­ta­tions. For exam­ple, diet No. 13 is rec­om­mend­ed in the acute peri­od of most infec­tious patholo­gies. When the dis­ease recedes a lit­tle and recov­ery begins, the menu and nutri­tion cal­en­dar change some­what, diet No. 15 is pre­scribed, which is dis­tin­guished by great vari­ety and free­dom in choos­ing healthy dish­es.

The Diet of Patients with Cardiopathologies: The Best Food Sources

Var­i­ous dis­or­ders of the cir­cu­la­to­ry sys­tem today are the main cause of pre­ma­ture death of peo­ple around the world. Ther­a­peu­tic and pre­ven­tive nutri­tion can sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce the risk of devel­op­ing arte­r­i­al hyper­ten­sion, ath­er­o­scle­ro­sis, coro­nary dis­ease and pre­vent such acute con­di­tions as heart attack and stroke, most often tak­ing human lives.

The diet of each of us, espe­cial­ly if the thresh­old of matu­ri­ty has been passed, should be made up of nat­ur­al prod­ucts that opti­mize meta­bol­ic process­es, the func­tion­al­i­ty of the cir­cu­la­to­ry sys­tem, the health of the heart and blood ves­sels:

    vegetables;
    fruit;
    leafy greens;
    edible algae;
    whole grains;
    nuts and seeds;
    lean meats and fish;
    natural dairy products;
    unrefined vegetable oils, etc.

It is impor­tant that prop­er nutri­tion is bal­anced, and its calo­rie con­tent does not exceed ener­gy needs.

Any unhealthy food source is exclud­ed:

    fast food;
    products of deep processing;
    semi-finished products;
    trans fats;
    fatty animal products.

Salt and sug­ar are lim­it­ed as much as pos­si­ble.

Healthy nutrition of obese patients

Since a non-com­mu­ni­ca­ble obe­si­ty epi­dem­ic is “rag­ing” in the world, which, accord­ing to WHO experts, cov­ered more than 600 mil­lion peo­ple in 2015, the pre­ven­tion of this pathol­o­gy is very impor­tant. To com­bat excess weight, spe­cial sys­tems and nutri­tion schemes devel­oped by the best nutri­tion­ists are used. Doc­tors help draw up a com­pre­hen­sive weight loss plan that includes a range of mea­sures, includ­ing:

    individual nutrition calendar;
    fitness training program;
    taking vitamins and dietary supplements;
    beauty treatments, etc.

Diet for type 2 diabetes

Car­bo­hy­drate metab­o­lism dis­or­ders, meta­bol­ic syn­drome and type 2 dia­betes mel­li­tus are among the most com­mon patholo­gies today. For the pre­ven­tion and treat­ment of dis­or­ders of car­bo­hy­drate metab­o­lism, spe­cial nutri­tion is used.

The basis of the diet is the restric­tion in the menu of “fast” car­bo­hy­drates, which include:

    refined sugar;
    some sweeteners, such as fructose;
    starch;
    bleached flour.

A healthy alter­na­tive to refined sug­ar and starch, “slow” car­bo­hy­drates that are high in dietary fiber are excel­lent sources of nutri­tion. For exam­ple:

    whole grains;
    seaweed;
    non-starchy vegetables;
    berries and fruits with a low content of fructose in the composition;
    leafy greens, etc.

Patients with dia­betes and those at risk of devel­op­ing meta­bol­ic syn­drome should also lim­it their intake of any ani­mal fats. To com­pen­sate for their defi­cien­cy and main­tain an opti­mal bal­ance of nutri­ents, food should be enriched:

    vegetable oils with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as olive, linseed, sesame, walnut, etc.;
    farmed and wild-caught fish;
    whole grains, nuts, seeds.

Diet for diseases of the digestive system

Diet for diseases of the digestive system

Since the human diges­tive sys­tem con­sists of sev­er­al organs, each of which can be at risk of devel­op­ing a num­ber of spe­cial patholo­gies, the nutri­tion of patients with dif­fer­ent dis­eases of the gas­troin­testi­nal tract can have sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences.

What is allowed for patients with hyper­acid gas­tri­tis and gas­troe­sophageal reflux is not suit­able for those who suf­fer from low acid­i­ty of gas­tric juice.

In acute pan­cre­ati­tis, dai­ly nutri­tion is not shown, which is rec­om­mend­ed in the remis­sion stage or after the acute symp­toms have sub­sided.

An attack of acute appen­dici­tis involves the intro­duc­tion of strict restric­tions that are inap­pro­pri­ate in the case of pro­longed con­sti­pa­tion.

Which food to choose is decid­ed by the ther­a­pist or gas­troen­terol­o­gist on the basis of a detailed exam­i­na­tion, lab­o­ra­to­ry tests, tak­ing into account pos­si­ble com­pli­ca­tions and con­traindi­ca­tions. For exam­ple:

    for chronic pathology of the gallbladder, a treatment table No. 5 according to Pevzner is prescribed;
    with diarrhea, healthy nutrition is indicated in accordance with diet No. 4;
    if the disease is accompanied by constipation, table number 3 is recommended.

Nutrition of patients with pathologies of the urinary organs

Sev­er­al ther­a­peu­tic and pre­ven­tive diets accord­ing to Pevzn­er are intend­ed for patients with var­i­ous dis­eases of the uri­nary sys­tem, depend­ing on:

    type of pathology;
    the nature of the disease;
    severity of symptoms.

Improv­ing nutri­tion by day in com­bi­na­tion with oth­er ther­a­peu­tic mea­sures allows you to relieve acute symp­toms in a short time, pre­vent relapse, and stop the devel­op­ment of the dis­ease.

As a rule, restric­tions apply to:

    processed foods and semi-finished products;
    fast food dishes;
    salt;
    hot spices;
    and some foods that contain chemicals that can cause certain types of kidney stones.

Proper nutrition

There is no one uni­ver­sal recipe for nutri­tion for every­one. But there are gen­er­al prin­ci­ples that are suit­able for every­one, regard­less of gen­der, age, occu­pa­tion, phys­i­cal activ­i­ty and exist­ing sys­temic patholo­gies.

Among the gen­er­al rec­om­men­da­tions that relate to the choice of prod­ucts and cater­ing, the fol­low­ing will suit absolute­ly every­one:

    the best food source is organic;
    the most optimal diet is balanced in composition;
    the most correct diet is constant;
    the healthiest menu is varied;
    The healthiest recipes are delicious.

Public catering and citizens’ health

Public catering and citizens' health

Pub­lic cater­ing is an impor­tant branch of the nation­al econ­o­my. Numer­ous enter­pris­es pro­vide the needs of cit­i­zens in fin­ished prod­ucts and culi­nary prod­ucts. They are con­di­tion­al­ly divid­ed into three main cat­e­gories:

    catering establishments — bars, restaurants, cafes, canteens, all kinds of kiosks of “fast” food, cooking, etc.;
    catering shops — various procurement enterprises that produce semi-finished products and culinary products for sale, including bakery products, confectionery, etc.;
    pre-cooked catering enterprises — produce finished products from semi-finished products.

Healthy food

The health­i­est foods are nature-cre­at­ed, organ­ic, or func­tion­al. If plant prod­ucts are grown with­out the use of harm­ful fer­til­iz­ers, and ani­mals are grown with­out haz­ardous feed, we can say that they are an ide­al option for human nutri­tion. The less culi­nary pro­cess­ing that food is sub­ject­ed to, the more use­ful it is for adults and chil­dren.

Harmful food

The most dan­ger­ous for human health today are ranked:

    products of deep processing, including confectionery, sausages, meat and fish semi-finished products and canned food with an unknown amount of added trans fats, refined carbohydrates and other food additives in the composition;
    sweet soda containing a large number of sweeteners and disrupting metabolic processes in the body;
    some fatty animal products that, according to the medical community, can provoke the development of atherosclerosis, cardiopathologies, colorectal and other types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, etc.

In addi­tion, numer­ous stud­ies by sci­en­tists have long proven that fry­ing and smok­ing are the most unde­sir­able meth­ods of cook­ing that can “spoil” the ben­e­fi­cial prop­er­ties of any nat­ur­al food prod­uct.

If you dine in a restau­rant or have a snack in a cafe, choose sim­ple dish­es that con­tain a min­i­mum of ingre­di­ents pre­pared in healthy ways:

    boiled;
    steamed;
    stewed;
    baked.

Vital vitamins, minerals and other nutrients in the diet

It is impor­tant that the diet con­tains all the bio­log­i­cal­ly active sub­stances nec­es­sary for human life and the effec­tive oper­a­tion of his body sys­tems. After all, a defi­cien­cy of any of them can lead to unde­sir­able health con­se­quences.

Pub­lic cater­ing often enrich­es our diet with bio­log­i­cal­ly active food sup­ple­ments. Some sub­stances are added to fin­ished prod­ucts dur­ing their pro­duc­tion, accord­ing to gov­ern­ment pro­grams.

For exam­ple, table salt, bak­ery prod­ucts and some oth­er prod­ucts are enriched with iodine to pre­vent thy­roid dis­eases, cre­tinism, asso­ci­at­ed with a defi­cien­cy of this impor­tant chem­i­cal ele­ment.

Meals at the workplace

Thanks to cater­ing enter­pris­es, today you can stick to a bal­anced diet, hav­ing lunch and snacks out­side the home. There are restau­rants, cafes, culi­nar­ies, etc. that spe­cial­ize in low-calo­rie dish­es, use only organ­ic ingre­di­ents, and do not add poten­tial­ly haz­ardous chem­i­cals to enhance the taste and pre­serve the pre­sen­ta­tion of per­ish­able prod­ucts.

How­ev­er, there is always a risk that your plate will not con­tain what is stat­ed on the label or on the menu, so choose “ver­i­fied” pre­pared food man­u­fac­tur­ers with a good rep­u­ta­tion.

home food

home food

If you cook at home, you will always know what is on your plate. And if you choose nat­ur­al foods and pre­pare them in healthy ways, your nutri­tion will be the most opti­mal for health.

In addi­tion, the very process of prepar­ing deli­cious dish­es, beau­ti­ful serv­ing, pleas­ant time spent at the fam­i­ly table will bring moments of joy to every­one.

How to organize proper nutrition: a menu for the whole family

In order for fam­i­ly nutri­tion to be use­ful, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the tastes and needs of every­one when com­pil­ing the menu.

Choose dish­es that both adults and chil­dren enjoy equal­ly.

Cook with fresh or frozen sea­son­al func­tion­al foods avail­able in your area to help pre­vent aller­gy or food intol­er­ance symp­toms in tod­dlers.

Use proven recipes, and if you are learn­ing new ones, care­ful­ly study the ingre­di­ents and stop at those that con­tain only nat­ur­al ingre­di­ents.

Nutrition system Prep: useful blanks

They have noth­ing to do with the tra­di­tion­al Russ­ian “pick­les-jam”. For those who have cho­sen home­made food, we sug­gest using the inno­v­a­tive Prep sys­tem, designed for dynam­ic mod­ern peo­ple who care about their own health.

It lies in the fact that:

    make a list of products in advance, planning meals for the week ahead;
    buy most of the ingredients on the menu in bulk;
    vegetables, greens are pre-cleaned, chopped, some are boiled until cooked, stored in food containers in the refrigerator or freezer, using as needed to prepare healthy meals for the whole family;
    legumes, whole grains (e.g. quinoa, brown rice, buckwheat, corn) are pre-soaked and boiled until fully cooked, frozen and eaten as a side dish or in soups, stews, salads, etc.

Family food calendar by day

The task of plan­ning home meals is great­ly facil­i­tat­ed by a fam­i­ly cal­en­dar-menu, in which every­one can enter their own wish­es for the com­ing week. His role can be played by a week­ly jour­nal, a kitchen note board, or a reg­u­lar sheet of paper attached with a mag­net to the refrig­er­a­tor.

Adults and chil­dren will be able to inde­pen­dent­ly choose the prod­ucts and dish­es that they like best, and as you know, the most healthy food is deli­cious.

Family holidays: what to cook

Noth­ing brings a fam­i­ly togeth­er like a fun hol­i­day feast. Each fam­i­ly has its own tra­di­tion­al menu for spe­cial occa­sions. Recipes for fes­tive dish­es are care­ful­ly pre­served and passed down from gen­er­a­tion to gen­er­a­tion. To cook “Olivi­er”, many house­wives wait for Decem­ber 31, bake East­er cakes for East­er, delight house­holds with lace pan­cakes for Maslen­it­sa.

If you want to keep your fam­i­ly’s meals healthy even dur­ing the hol­i­days, cook with nat­ur­al ingre­di­ents, adapt­ing clas­sic recipes. For exam­ple, in healthy bak­ing, you can replace:

    butter — yogurt;
    refined sugar — stevia extract;
    egg — a mixture of 3 tbsp. l. water and 1 tbsp. l. ground flaxseed;
    bleached wheat flour — whole grain, buckwheat, oatmeal, rye, etc.

Meals in fasting

Rep­re­sen­ta­tives of sev­er­al reli­gious con­ces­sions live in Rus­sia. All reli­gions have their own rules for eat­ing or abstain­ing from it for a while.

Fast­ing food for Chris­tians is sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent from what is cus­tom­ary for Mus­lims or Jews.

Ortho­dox reli­gious tra­di­tion involves the peri­od­ic rejec­tion of ani­mal prod­ucts. In addi­tion, fast­ing food, which is called “strict”, has addi­tion­al restric­tions:

    you can not use vegetable oil;
    sweets are not allowed;
    there are days to be spent on bread and water.

In some oth­er reli­gions, there is no pro­hi­bi­tion on ani­mal food, but there are restric­tions on cer­tain types of foods that are always in effect, and not just dur­ing fasts.

So Mus­lims and Jews do not eat pork, the meat of ani­mals with blood. In Judaism, the pro­hi­bi­tion also applies to camel meat, hare meat, as well as the meat of any wild ani­mals and birds, such as an ostrich.

Fol­low­ers of the Torah do not mix dairy with meat. These food groups should be con­sumed at least half an hour apart. There­fore, Jew­ish tra­di­tion­al cui­sine does not use recipes that include both meat and dairy prod­ucts among the ingre­di­ents.

Any meal dur­ing fast­ing is pro­hib­it­ed by Mus­lims dur­ing day­light hours. You can not eat after sun­rise and before sun­set. The oblig­a­tory fast falls on the month of Ramadan. There are a few extras that are of neg­li­gi­ble dura­tion and are not required for every­one.

Jew­ish reli­gious tra­di­tion pre­scribes sev­er­al fasts dur­ing the year, which dif­fer from each oth­er. For exam­ple, any food dur­ing the fast, which falls on the Day of Atone­ment, is com­plete­ly pro­hib­it­ed. “Dry” fast­ing lasts longer than 24 hours (from the sun­set of one day to the appear­ance of the first evening star of the next). At this time, the fol­low­ing instruc­tions must be strict­ly fol­lowed:

    do not wash;
    do not apply oil to the skin or hair;
    do not wear leather shoes;
    do not fulfill marital obligations.

What is the danger of malnutrition

What is the danger of malnutrition

Improp­er nutri­tion is one of the main fac­tors that can sig­nif­i­cant­ly wors­en a per­son­’s health and lead to the devel­op­ment of var­i­ous patholo­gies: from diar­rhea and ane­mia to obe­si­ty and can­cer. Let’s talk about the most com­mon mis­takes.

Unbalanced and low-calorie diet

This is not about forced hunger, but about the con­scious choice that some peo­ple make on a low-calo­rie diet. Often, in an effort to lose weight, we try extreme diets, express meth­ods, or resort to fast­ing, with­out think­ing about the con­se­quences that such exper­i­ments can have on our own body.

Lack of water, ener­gy, essen­tial nutri­ents and nutri­ents are a threat to human health. The most dan­ger­ous short­age is the lack of water. With­out it, we will “stretch” no more than 3 days. With­out food, the aver­age man will live no more than 25 days. The lack of oth­er nutri­ents in the nutri­tion menu will affect lat­er, but soon­er or lat­er lead to the same sad out­come.

Irregular meals

Just like mal­nu­tri­tion, irreg­u­lar meals pro­voke meta­bol­ic dis­or­ders, slow­ing down meta­bol­ic process­es in the human body. If a per­son replen­ish­es ener­gy reserves irreg­u­lar­ly, the metab­o­lism begins to work for “accu­mu­la­tion”, cre­ates fat reserves at every oppor­tu­ni­ty.

With irreg­u­lar meals, it is impos­si­ble to con­trol appetite. And this inevitably pro­vokes out­breaks of “wild” hunger, overeat­ing, indis­crim­i­nate absorp­tion of harm­ful foods and oth­er nutri­tion­al dis­or­ders.

Nutritional supplements

Most processed foods con­tain sub­stances called “food addi­tives”. These include:

    preservatives;
    stabilizers;
    emulsifiers;
    dyes;
    flavors;
    flavor enhancers, etc.

They are not always help­ful. From the cat­e­go­ry of “allowed” some of them, thanks to the research of sci­en­tists, some­times go into the cat­e­go­ry of pro­hib­it­ed ones.

In Rus­sia, con­trol over the use of food addi­tives is car­ried out by Rospotreb­nad­zor. He uses the instruc­tions and lists of pro­hib­it­ed addi­tives, which are com­piled by a spe­cial body at the World Health Orga­ni­za­tion, JECFA.

Some offi­cial­ly approved addi­tives are poten­tial­ly dan­ger­ous to human health, since in the long term, direct­ly or indi­rect­ly, they can lead to the devel­op­ment of many sys­temic dis­or­ders. The less added sub­stances in your usu­al diet, the low­er the risks of devel­op­ing for­mi­da­ble patholo­gies, such as:

    metabolic syndrome;
    obesity;
    type 2 diabetes;
    some types of cancer, etc.

Processed foods and semi-finished products

Increas­ing­ly, the sci­en­tif­ic com­mu­ni­ty is talk­ing about the dan­gers posed by eat­ing processed foods, semi-fin­ished prod­ucts, canned food, etc. Very often, harm­ful prod­ucts are among the com­po­nents. The ingre­di­ents stat­ed on their labels are not always true. Unscrupu­lous man­u­fac­tur­ers, in an effort to reduce the cost of pro­duc­tion, length­en the shelf life, improve attrac­tive­ness, use pro­hib­it­ed food addi­tives. Among the “hid­den” ingre­di­ents are often:

    trans fats;
    refined sugar;
    modified starch, etc.

Fast food

“Fast food” or fast food has become part of the diet for many, and for some it has become the main and only food. School­child­ren, stu­dents, office work­ers and many oth­er cat­e­gories of cit­i­zens, despite the fact that they peri­od­i­cal­ly read or hear about the dan­gers of fast food, reg­u­lar­ly use its ser­vices.

Food addi­tives, often unhealthy, dan­ger­ous cook­ing meth­ods, cheap raw mate­ri­als of dubi­ous qual­i­ty — all this togeth­er is harm­ful to health. As a result of reg­u­lar eat­ing “fast food” devel­op:

    metabolic disorders;
    atherosclerosis;
    cardiopathology;
    type 2 diabetes;
    obesity;
    some types of cancer.

Universal Power Scheme

Universal Power Scheme

For healthy peo­ple of dif­fer­ent sex and age, there are spe­cial rec­om­men­da­tions and nutri­tion sys­tems that allow you to main­tain good health, psy­cho-emo­tion­al state, labor pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, vig­or. They relate to the main points of the diet:

    optimal calorie intake;
    balanced menu for key nutrients;
    the presence in the diet of vital nutrients;
    number of meals;
    energy value of breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional “snacks”.

How to create an individual nutrition menu by day

When plan­ning a diet, mak­ing an approx­i­mate menu for a week or more, you can stick to a healthy diet and get all the nec­es­sary vit­a­mins, macro- and microele­ments. It is impor­tant that the basis of the diet is organ­ic prod­ucts, and the menu con­sists main­ly of home­made dish­es pre­pared in healthy ways:

    stewed;
    baked;
    boiled;
    steamed.

Nutritional balance in the diet

A var­ied menu, which con­tains all the main food groups, is a guar­an­tee that the body will receive every­thing nec­es­sary for the opti­mal func­tion­ing of its sys­tems and life.

The best nutri­tion­ists, includ­ing WHO experts, rec­om­mend plan­ning meals so that the fol­low­ing approx­i­mate pro­por­tions of the ratio of essen­tial nutri­ents by calo­rie con­tent are observed in the dai­ly menu:

    carbohydrates — 55% (moreover, it is desirable that at least 40% are “slow” carbohydrates, fiber is the main source of nutrition);
    proteins ‑15%;
    fats — 30%.

How to calculate the optimal daily calorie intake

To deter­mine the opti­mal ener­gy val­ue of the dai­ly menu, you must con­sid­er:

    floor;
    age;
    the weight;
    lifestyle and physical activity.

There are sev­er­al ways to cal­cu­late the opti­mal calo­rie intake for peo­ple of dif­fer­ent sex­es, ages and pro­fes­sions, which is called the base­line or BUK. It begins with the deter­mi­na­tion of nor­mal body weight. It is found, giv­en the height and type of addi­tion. Then the opti­mal meta­bol­ic rate is cal­cu­lat­ed (Har­ris-Bene­dict for­mu­la). Hav­ing learned it and using the coef­fi­cient of phys­i­cal activ­i­ty, you can cal­cu­late the BUK.

Spe­cial tables will help deter­mine the basic caloric con­tent of food. They can be found on the pages of the pop­u­lar med­ical por­tal Healthy­in­fo.

How to distribute energy value between meals

How to distribute energy value between meals

It is impor­tant not only to get ener­gy from food reg­u­lar­ly, but also to learn how to plan the menu in such a way that the calo­rie con­tent of the main meals and snacks is opti­mal. One of the best options for today is con­sid­ered to be 5 meals a day, in which, in addi­tion to break­fast, lunch and din­ner, there is a sec­ond break­fast and after­noon snack. How­ev­er, if a per­son eats din­ner no lat­er than 3 hours before bed, as advised by the best experts in the field of nutri­tion, and feels hun­gry before bed, he can afford to con­sume a low-calo­rie pro­tein prod­uct:

    natural yogurt;
    a piece of boiled chicken breast;
    some low-fat cottage cheese.

The ratio of caloric intake of meals, if a 5‑time meal plan is cho­sen, is dis­trib­uted approx­i­mate­ly as fol­lows:

    breakfast — 20%;
    second breakfast — 10%;
    lunch — 40%;
    afternoon snack — 10%;
    dinner — 20%.

Energy breakfast

Morn­ing meal should “charge” vivac­i­ty and good mood for the whole day. There­fore, do not for­get to have break­fast, and choose healthy healthy meals, in which high-qual­i­ty pro­teins will be com­bined with veg­etable fats and “slow” car­bo­hy­drates. For exam­ple:

    whole grain porridge (buckwheat, oatmeal, quinoa, etc.) with nuts and dried fruits;
    natural yogurt with frozen or fresh berries;
    vitamin smoothie of avocado, cucumber, leafy greens and flaxseed with fresh lime;
    protein omelette with fresh vegetable salad seasoned with unrefined oil.

Full lunch

Regard­less of which meal you choose, it is rec­om­mend­ed that lunch be your high­est calo­rie meal. If pos­si­ble, dine at home or take home­made meals with you.

If you still have to use the ser­vices of cater­ing estab­lish­ments, choose restau­rants, cafes, can­teens with a good rep­u­ta­tion, a healthy menu of organ­ic prod­ucts. Or order ready meals direct­ly to the office.

Light dinner

Evening meals can often be afford­ed at home. We advise you to cook your­self from nat­ur­al prod­ucts of the best qual­i­ty. Don’t for­get about fiber-rich foods. Plant fibers will help opti­mize the func­tion­ing of the diges­tive sys­tem, pro­vide nutri­tion to ben­e­fi­cial intesti­nal microflo­ra, pre­vent con­sti­pa­tion, ath­er­o­scle­ro­sis, etc.

Healthy snacks

Sec­ond break­fast, after­noon snack, sec­ond din­ner — dif­fer from the main meals in low­er calo­rie con­tent, but should be healthy and bal­anced in com­po­si­tion. Healthy “snacks” help “speed up” meta­bol­ic process­es and pro­tect against eat­ing dis­or­ders (fast food, eat­ing processed foods, overeat­ing, etc.).

Meals dur­ing an after­noon snack or sec­ond break­fast can be organ­ic prod­ucts. For exam­ple:

    a handful of unsalted nuts or seeds;
    popcorn without oil, sugar and salt;
    some dried fruit, fresh or frozen berries, etc.

Did you know that in the Mid­dle East, in the Maghreb coun­tries, there is a won­der­ful tra­di­tion of healthy eat­ing: cucum­ber is one of the options for a healthy snack. A veg­etable cut into sev­er­al parts is served with­out salt or sauces, as an inde­pen­dent snack or as a dessert.

What diet to choose for weight loss

What diet to choose for weight loss

If you are over­weight and want to lose weight, you will need to rethink your eat­ing habits to bal­ance your calo­rie intake and ener­gy expen­di­ture, speed up your metab­o­lism, and bal­ance your diet.

We do not rec­om­mend resort­ing to car­di­nal meth­ods, prac­tic­ing fast­ing or express diets. Before you decide on a par­tic­u­lar method of los­ing weight, con­sult with a nutri­tion­ist or nutri­tion­ist. Pri­or con­sul­ta­tion is required for:

    patients with systemic diseases;
    children under 18;
    pregnant and lactating women;
    elderly people.

The most popular diets

Among the most pop­u­lar nutri­tion sys­tems for weight loss in Rus­sia today are:

    Dukan diet;
    Atkins system;
    meals according to the Malysheva program;
    mediterranean diet;
    buckwheat;
    Japanese, etc.

Protein diets

One of the pop­u­lar weight loss meth­ods are pro­tein diets, in which the bal­ance of nutri­ents in the dai­ly diet is “shift­ed” towards pro­teins.

Ide­al sources of healthy pro­teins are:

    whole grains, seeds, nuts;
    lean meats and fish;
    legumes;
    mushrooms;
    leafy greens;
    edible algae;
    eggs;
    natural dairy products without added fats.

This method of accel­er­at­ing metab­o­lism is good for intense phys­i­cal train­ing. But not every­one can prac­tice it. Such nutri­tion is espe­cial­ly dan­ger­ous for preg­nant women, the elder­ly, patients with kid­ney patholo­gies, etc.

carbohydrate diets

Food sys­tems that are not just dom­i­nat­ed by car­bo­hy­drates, as rec­om­mend­ed for opti­mal bal­ance, but oth­er nutri­ents are reduced, are called “car­bo­hy­drate”. It is very impor­tant that the sources of “slow” car­bo­hy­drates serve as the basis of the menu in this case:

    vegetables;
    legumes;
    leafy greens;
    mushrooms;
    whole grains;
    fruit;
    nuts;
    edible algae;
    seeds.

While many peo­ple around the world con­scious­ly choose a car­bo­hy­drate-free diet when they become veg­e­tar­i­an or veg­an, a plant-based diet that is both a phi­los­o­phy is not ide­al for health. Since it is not easy to pro­vide the body with all the use­ful sub­stances, for exam­ple, cal­ci­um, B vit­a­mins, iron, etc.

Fat diets

Anoth­er diet option for weight loss can be fat diets, which are prac­ticed by some nutri­tion­ists.

The basis of the diet are sources of ani­mal and veg­etable fats. More­over, it is impor­tant that the empha­sis in the menu be placed on prod­ucts con­tain­ing a large amount of polyun­sat­u­rat­ed fat­ty acids:

    nuts;
    cold-pressed vegetable oils;
    wild-caught fish, etc.

Chang­ing the bal­ance of essen­tial nutri­ents in the direc­tion of increas­ing the pro­por­tion of fat is not shown to every­one, so before decid­ing on a fat diet, con­sult your doc­tor.

The optimal nutrition system for weight loss

The optimal nutrition system for weight loss

The eas­i­est way is to con­tact a pro­fes­sion­al nutri­tion­ist. He will draw up a com­pre­hen­sive plan to com­bat excess weight, which will include not only diet, but also fit­ness train­ing, spe­cial pro­ce­dures. If you do not have such an oppor­tu­ni­ty, use the advice of experts and authors of the pop­u­lar med­ical por­tal Healthy­in­fo to cre­ate a long-term weight loss plan.

Calculation of calorie diet for weight loss

The first step is to find out the opti­mal calo­rie intake for your gen­der, age, type of phys­i­cal activ­i­ty. To lose weight grad­u­al­ly and cor­rect­ly, it should be reduced by no more than 600 kcal.

There are spe­cial mobile appli­ca­tions for smart­phones and tablets, “calo­rie coun­ters”, which allow you to cal­cu­late the caloric con­tent of food for weight loss.

Maintenance of metabolism

Los­ing weight does not mean starv­ing. In order for meta­bol­ic process­es to pro­ceed nor­mal­ly, you should eat reg­u­lar­ly, every three hours dur­ing the day, and the food source must be organ­ic. This will help con­trol appetite and pre­vent “break­downs”, overeat­ing, eat­ing junk food, fast food.

You should refrain from prod­ucts that are the cul­prits of meta­bol­ic dis­rup­tions:

    refined sugar and sweeteners;
    starch and bleached flour;
    processed foods with trans fats;
    fatty meats;
    industrially grown fish, etc.

Sports nutrition

Sports nutrition

The diet of ath­letes is sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent from the menu of peo­ple lead­ing a seden­tary lifestyle. Sports nutri­tion involves a sig­nif­i­cant increase in ener­gy intake. The calo­rie con­tent of the diet increas­es accord­ing to the inten­si­ty and dura­tion of train­ing.

In addi­tion, the “arrange­ment” of essen­tial nutri­ents is chang­ing. With active sports, an increase in the amount of pro­teins in the diet is required, which are the main sources of ener­gy and build­ing mate­r­i­al for mus­cle tis­sue.

Today, sci­en­tists and nutri­tion­ists have devel­oped a spe­cial sports nutri­tion. These are spe­cial prod­ucts for those who are engaged in fit­ness or pro­fes­sion­al sports. In Rus­sia, they are clas­si­fied as bio­log­i­cal­ly active food addi­tives.

There are var­i­ous types of sports nutri­tion that help to solve var­i­ous prob­lems. For exam­ple:

    protein shakes;
    energy;
    fat burners;
    isotonics, etc.

Just as in the case of the choice of con­ven­tion­al dietary sup­ple­ments, before you start tak­ing sports nutri­tion, con­sult your doc­tor.

Shut­ter­stock pho­to mate­ri­als used

By Yraa

Leave a Reply