Human sleep: what are the phases of sleep?

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From a sci­en­tif­ic point of view, sleep is a com­plex process that is char­ac­ter­ized by a reduced reac­tion to the out­side world. There are four phas­es (stages) of sleep, each of which has a cer­tain dura­tion. The total dura­tion of all four phas­es is about one and a half hours. Nor­mal­ly, five such cycles should pass per night.

Human sleep: the first phase

The first phase is a per­son­’s super­fi­cial sleep. Its dura­tion is only five to ten min­utes. At this time, in the body, or rather in the pineal gland — the pineal gland of the brain, the sleep hor­mone — mela­tonin, which, by and large, helps a per­son to fall asleep, begins to be active­ly pro­duced.

After falling asleep, the hypo­thal­a­mus, a spe­cial part of the brain, reacts to a slow­ing of the pulse, breath­ing rate and can send impuls­es to the mus­cles, which is often man­i­fest­ed by a sharp twitch­ing of the legs in a dream. Accord­ing to one of the many hypothe­ses, the via­bil­i­ty of the organ­ism is thus test­ed.

By the way, if a per­son who has just fall­en asleep is awak­ened, he may not under­stand that he has already fall­en asleep, since the brain has not yet fall­en into a deep sleep.

What can not be done before bed?

What can not be done before bed?

To ensure healthy sleep, it is impor­tant, among oth­er things, to cre­ate the right envi­ron­ment. It is bet­ter if the bed­room is designed exclu­sive­ly for sleep­ing. If pos­si­ble, it should not have a TV, radio, com­put­er, tape recorder, loud­ly tick­ing alarm clock, etc.

Twen­ty to thir­ty min­utes before going to bed, it is advis­able to ven­ti­late the sleep­ing area to a com­fort­able tem­per­a­ture by open­ing the win­dow. It is worth remem­ber­ing that it is much bet­ter to sleep in a cool place, cov­ered with a blan­ket, than in a stuffy room, but with­out a blan­ket. It is not rec­om­mend­ed to “sit” on a tablet, mobile phone, etc. imme­di­ate­ly before going to bed, as this has an excit­ing effect on the ner­vous sys­tem and may affect the qual­i­ty of sleep.

You should go to bed at about the same time. The best option is twen­ty-two thir­ty. It is in the inter­val from twen­ty-three in the evening to one in the morn­ing that impor­tant hor­mones are pro­duced in the body — nor­ep­i­neph­rine, dopamine, sero­tonin, which are neu­ro­trans­mit­ters.

While falling asleep, the room should be suf­fi­cient­ly dark­ened. If any source of light (adver­tis­ing sign, etc.) pen­e­trates into the room from the street, blind cur­tains can be used. Any flash­es of light (from a TV, com­put­er, mobile phone, etc.) dur­ing the first phase of sleep can lead to the ces­sa­tion of mela­tonin syn­the­sis. As a result, the per­son may wake up fre­quent­ly.

Peo­ple who pre­fer to fall asleep with the TV on are mak­ing a big mis­take. More­over, even the indi­ca­tor on the TV pan­el that lights up when the TV is turned off can affect the qual­i­ty of sleep. A full sleep of a per­son lasts six to eight hours.

Second phase of sleep

The dura­tion of the sec­ond phase is twen­ty to thir­ty min­utes. Dur­ing this peri­od, all meta­bol­ic process­es slow down, body tem­per­a­ture drops by half a degree, and some­times by a whole degree.

By the way, the qual­i­ty of a person’s sleep is also affect­ed by the air tem­per­a­ture in the room. If the room is too cold or vice ver­sa hot, this can cause fre­quent wak­ing up. It is believed that the opti­mal tem­per­a­ture dur­ing sleep should be between eigh­teen and twen­ty-two degrees. There­fore, you can exper­i­ment and choose the most com­fort­able tem­per­a­ture for your­self.

Third phase: hormone production

Third phase: hormone production

The third phase of sleep lasts about twen­ty min­utes. At this time, when all process­es have already slowed down, the body mobi­lizes ener­gy to pre­pare for awak­en­ing. The stress hor­mone cor­ti­sol begins to be active­ly pro­duced. This leads to an increase in blood sug­ar and blood pres­sure, which is espe­cial­ly dan­ger­ous for hyper­ten­sive patients.

Since blood pres­sure ris­es and blood coag­u­la­tion increas­es in par­al­lel, a stroke (throm­boem­bol­ic or ischemic) or myocar­dial infarc­tion can occur.

To avoid sad con­se­quences and calm­ly sur­vive the third phase of sleep, which is nor­mal­ly repeat­ed five times a night, peo­ple with hyper­ten­sion should take med­ica­tion before bed to sta­bi­lize pres­sure. It is impor­tant that the drug tak­en has an effect through­out the night. Doc­tors advise some hyper­ten­sive patients to leave med­i­cines on the table in front of the bed at night so that they are at hand if nec­es­sary.

In addi­tion, before going to bed, it is rec­om­mend­ed to drink a glass of water to slight­ly low­er the vis­cos­i­ty (thick­ness) of the blood. Flood­ing the body is also desir­able for those who like to wrap them­selves in warm blan­kets at night, which leads to increased sweat­ing and can cause dehy­dra­tion.

Fourth phase

The final fourth (REM) phase of sleep is also called REM sleep or REM sleep. It is char­ac­ter­ized by deep sleep, but the brain is active, and the eye­balls move quick­ly, and the per­son can dream. This phase is con­sid­ered the best for wak­ing up. As a rule, at this time a per­son eas­i­ly wakes up, feels well-rest­ed, full of ener­gy and ready for pro­duc­tive work.

By the way, since the mus­cles con­tin­ue to be in a relaxed state, a dream­er try­ing to get away from a chase in a dream can­not run fast.

How to wake up correctly?

REM sleep is the most favor­able for morn­ing awak­en­ing, allow­ing a per­son to wake up alert and rest­ed. With con­stant obser­vance of the sleep reg­i­men, the habit of get­ting up at the right time will be devel­oped to automa­tism.

Many peo­ple after wak­ing up like to soak up in bed and take a nap for at least anoth­er five to ten min­utes. How­ev­er, this is not rec­om­mend­ed, as the body can enter the first phase of slow sleep. As a result, in the future, through­out the day, a feel­ing of weak­ness, drowsi­ness, etc. may per­sist. There­fore, you should not waste time. You should imme­di­ate­ly get out of bed.

It is unde­sir­able to use an alarm clock to wake up. It’s bet­ter to just train your­self to wake up in REM sleep. Sharp irri­tants at this time are absolute­ly use­less.

To date, on sale you can find spe­cial alarm clocks-gad­gets that ana­lyze the move­ment of a per­son dur­ing the night and wake him up pre­cise­ly in the REM phase of sleep. There­fore, for those who can­not do with­out the use of an alarm clock, such devices will be very use­ful.

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Reg­u­lar healthy sleep will allow you to wake up not only refreshed and rest­ed, but also in gen­er­al increase the life expectan­cy of a per­son.

By Yraa

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