Hygiene is an important branch of medicine

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Hygiene is one of the important branches of medicine

Hygiene is one of the important branches of medicine

Hygiene is a sci­ence that cov­ers almost all aspects of human life. From the ancient Greek, hygiene is “ὑγιεινός”, which means “healthy” in trans­la­tion. There are sev­er­al def­i­n­i­tions of this term, but to gen­er­al­ize, this sci­ence stud­ies every­thing relat­ed to main­tain­ing and improv­ing health.

Hygiene includes many sec­tions: hygiene of chil­dren and ado­les­cents, hygiene of food, body, hous­ing, etc.

Basic Hygiene Research Methods

To obtain an evi­dence base, cer­tain meth­ods are used in any sci­ence. In the case of hygiene, this is:

    epidemiological control, which allows you to find out such indicators as the birth rate, morbidity scale, mortality, etc.;
    sanitary inspection, during which special tools are used, as well as interviews. A certain segment of the population is being studied (students of general education schools or higher educational institutions, factory or office workers, etc.). In conclusion, conclusions are drawn and a report is drawn up;
    sanitary experiments, without which no science can do. Experiments conducted in the laboratory, allow you to obtain the necessary information, which is the basis for the implementation of certain rules and regulations;
    educational and teaching methods. The information received on hygiene issues must be conveyed to the masses, choosing the ideal presentation format, the right words. After all, all people, regardless of age, place of residence, religion, must adhere to hygiene standards in order to preserve not only their own health, but also the health of the entire nation.

The main tasks of hygiene

The main tasks fac­ing the sci­ence of hygiene are:

    collection of the maximum amount of information on the impact of the environment on the human body;
    introduction of rules and control over their observance;
    development of health standards;
    organization of preventive measures.

The Importance of Personal Hygiene

The goal of pub­lic hygiene is to improve the health of all miles of the pop­u­la­tion. In con­trast, per­son­al hygiene is need­ed to keep the human body healthy and increase the life expectan­cy of an indi­vid­ual.

No mat­ter how glob­al the achieve­ments in the field of pub­lic hygiene, the goals will not be achieved if a sin­gle indi­vid­ual neglects per­son­al hygiene. We are talk­ing about the obser­vance of the dai­ly rou­tine, rest, bal­anced nutri­tion, clean­li­ness of the skin, hair, mouth, get­ting rid of unhealthy habits, etc. Neg­li­gent reg­u­lar atti­tude to hygiene rules over time leads to health prob­lems, dete­ri­o­ra­tion in appear­ance, chron­ic fatigue etc.

Per­son­al and pub­lic hygiene are strong­ly linked. For exam­ple, the health of many peo­ple can be adverse­ly affect­ed by the fail­ure to com­ply with hygiene require­ments by just one per­son. This is espe­cial­ly true when it comes to pro­fes­sions that involve direct con­tact with a large num­ber of peo­ple.

Body hygiene

Main­tain­ing clean­li­ness of the body is extreme­ly impor­tant, because it is the skin that pro­tects the human body from the harm­ful effects of envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors. In addi­tion to pro­tec­tion, the skin per­forms a num­ber of func­tions. We are talk­ing about ther­moreg­u­la­to­ry, meta­bol­ic, res­pi­ra­to­ry, secre­to­ry, etc.

It is rec­om­mend­ed to take a show­er every day, using water at a tem­per­a­ture of about 38 ° C. Reg­u­lar and com­plete body hygiene pre­vents the risk of many dis­eases caused by bac­te­ria, fun­gi, etc. The fact is that at least 400 ml of sweat is released through the skin per day (this is at room tem­per­a­ture, and much more in the heat) and about 40 g fat. If they are not washed off, then the skin will become a favor­able habi­tat for var­i­ous pathogens.

Remem­ber that exposed areas of the body — hands, feet, nails need spe­cial care. Wher­ev­er you are, take care of the hygiene of your palms and nails, because germs from your hands can eas­i­ly get on your food.

Wash your hands not only after, but also before vis­it­ing the toi­let room, before eat­ing, after con­tact with small­er broth­ers, even if they are pets.

On the road, also do not for­get about body hygiene, wipe the skin of your hands with wet wipes, and dis­in­fect with spe­cial prod­ucts. They are pro­duced in the form of sprays, which is very con­ve­nient to use. Be sure to wash your feet every day. To reduce sweat­ing, use soap and luke­warm water while wash­ing.

Oral hygiene

Oral hygiene

Oral hygiene is the care of the oral cav­i­ty, which nec­es­sar­i­ly includes the removal of plaque from the teeth, in order to pre­vent var­i­ous dis­eases. Many of them are caused by fly­ing. Oral hygiene is both per­son­al and pro­fes­sion­al.

Dur­ing the pro­fes­sion­al, pro­ce­dures are car­ried out aimed at remov­ing plaque, teeth and fill­ings are pol­ished, and appli­ca­tions are also per­formed. Patients must be told about the basic tech­niques and meth­ods of hygiene, and if nec­es­sary, they are shown how to do every­thing cor­rect­ly.

Clean­ing is car­ried out using mod­ern sys­tems that gen­tly remove plaque, as well as stains result­ing from drink­ing caf­feinat­ed drinks, smok­ing and food prod­ucts with col­or­ing pig­ments. One of the most pop­u­lar clean­ing sys­tems today is Air­Flow. Dur­ing the pro­ce­dure, soda pow­der, a strong jet of water and com­pressed air are used.

Min­er­al­ized (hard) plaque that forms on the gums and under them, which is called stones, is removed using an ultra­sound machine. Be sure to take into account the fact that many stones can­not be removed at a time. It will take sev­er­al ses­sions to get a last­ing result.

The fre­quen­cy of pro­fes­sion­al clean­ing depends on many fac­tors. First of all, it is the inten­si­ty of stone for­ma­tion and per­son­al hygiene of a per­son. On aver­age, one to four times a year.

Clean­ing by a spe­cial­ist is manda­to­ry, but it is not a guar­an­tee of the ide­al con­di­tion of the oral cav­i­ty. First of all, you need to take care of your teeth, gums, tongue every day with the help of per­son­al hygiene items.

The habit of tak­ing good care of your teeth should be instilled at an ear­ly age. In this case, the exam­ple of rel­a­tives is the main thing, as well as the advice of a spe­cial­ist in oral hygiene.

Between reg­u­lar vis­its to the den­tist, each per­son should fol­low the rec­om­men­da­tions that will help reduce the risk of caries and var­i­ous oral dis­eases.

    Brush your teeth at least twice a day, and be sure to use a special floss to clean the spaces between them.
    Never use someone else’s toothbrush.
    Try to minimize snacking between main meals. Rinse your mouth with water after eating.
    Use mouthwash after brushing your teeth. When choosing it, be guided by the advice of a dentist.
    To choose products for personal oral hygiene (brushes for interdental spaces, irrigators, pastes and brushes, threads, etc.), it is better to contact a trusted clinic.

Personal care products

Prepa­ra­tions, the use of which allows you to strength­en, as well as main­tain health, and are used by peo­ple almost every day through­out their lives, are clas­si­fied as per­son­al hygiene prod­ucts.

They are clas­si­fied accord­ing to their pur­pose:

    for the care of the skin of the hands, feet, face, body, intimate hygiene. These are all kinds of gels, foams, soaps, mousses …
    for hair care. Personal hygiene products should be selected taking into account the type of curls. They are normal (shiny, lively, elastic), dry (thin, split, without shine), oily (seem stale within a few hours after the washing procedure), mixed type (fatty at the roots, dry closer to the tips). By choosing the right hygiene products, you can significantly improve the condition of your hair, regardless of type and condition;
    for oral care. These are pastes, threads, various rinses, toothpicks, dental wipes, etc.

Also, per­son­al hygiene prod­ucts include cot­ton prod­ucts (sticks, disks and balls), nap­kins, paper hand­ker­chiefs, dia­pers.

Intimate hygiene of a woman

Intimate hygiene of a woman

Wom­en’s health depends on how con­sci­en­tious­ly the fair sex relates to per­son­al hygiene, espe­cial­ly inti­mate ones.

The vagi­na is a self-clean­ing sys­tem, but despite this, it is nec­es­sary to reg­u­lar­ly remove the waste prod­ucts of the glands and var­i­ous impu­ri­ties from the gen­i­tals (exter­nal). You need to wash at least once a day. If pos­si­ble, this pro­ce­dure should also be car­ried out after the toi­let, and on the days of men­stru­a­tion when replac­ing tam­pons and pads. Inti­mate hygiene involves the use of a sep­a­rate tow­el that needs to be washed fre­quent­ly.

Since the vagi­nal flo­ra does not pose any dan­ger to the intestines, the hands should move towards the anus when wash­ing. Try to keep bac­te­ria from the anus area away from the gen­i­tals. By the way, this rule must also be observed when using nap­kins or toi­let paper.

Par­ti­cles of mucus, liq­uid dis­charge, dust are eas­i­ly washed off with ordi­nary water, which means that for inti­mate hygiene it is not nec­es­sary to use gel cleans­ing prod­ucts or soap every time. The com­po­si­tion of such prod­ucts includes sur­fac­tants that break down fat mol­e­cules. Their fre­quent use can lead to the destruc­tion of the hydroli­pidic pro­tec­tive film of the skin.

Impor­tant: you need to use soap to cleanse the peri­anal area.

If it is unusu­al for you to wash your gen­i­tals with only water, then use spe­cial prepa­ra­tions for inti­mate hygiene. Also suit­able for this pur­pose is baby soap. Prod­ucts with an aggres­sive com­po­si­tion increase the risk of overdry­ing of the mucosa. This can cause exces­sive repro­duc­tion of bac­te­ria, an increase in their norm, which will lead to increased secre­tions, an unpleas­ant odor. In oth­er words, try­ing to do the best will only make things worse.

Women’s intimate hygiene items

Before buy­ing inti­mate hygiene prod­ucts, it is bet­ter to con­sult a phar­ma­cist or doc­tor. Such prepa­ra­tions are quite mild, they often do not include fla­vor­ings and dyes in their com­po­si­tion, in order to avoid an aller­gic reac­tion and irri­ta­tion, but mois­tur­iz­ing com­po­nents are intro­duced. And most impor­tant­ly, the acid­i­ty of such prod­ucts is select­ed tak­ing into account the char­ac­ter­is­tics of inti­mate areas. Neu­tral, acidic, alka­line gels are pro­duced. Neu­tral — serve as an excel­lent replace­ment for soap. Alka­line and acidic — are used in the com­plex treat­ment of cer­tain types of vagini­tis and can­didi­a­sis, and can also be rec­om­mend­ed by a doc­tor for the pre­ven­tion of such dis­eases.

Panty lin­ers are designed to pro­tect under­wear from secre­tions, and most of them cope with this func­tion per­fect­ly. But at the same time, the indi­ca­tor of gen­i­tal hygiene does not improve with their con­stant wear­ing, and some­times even vice ver­sa. Around the entrance to the vagi­na there are small glands, the secret of which is inten­sive­ly absorbed by panty lin­ers. Despite the fact that the work of the glands is accel­er­at­ed, the vul­va may lose its pro­tec­tive lay­er. This is fraught with the devel­op­ment of infec­tions caused by fun­gi and bac­te­ria. So only use them when nec­es­sary. Avoid using scent­ed pads as they can cause itch­ing and irri­ta­tion.

Some­times, to pre­vent such a com­mon dis­ease as thrush, it is enough to deal with your under­wear and replace prod­ucts made of syn­thet­ic mate­ri­als with cot­ton, and also devote more time to inti­mate hygiene. Poly­ester briefs that fit tight­ly to the body can be harm­ful: they do not allow accu­mu­lat­ed heat to escape, as a result, the skin sweats, cre­at­ing a favor­able envi­ron­ment for the devel­op­ment of fun­gi and bac­te­ria.

Hygiene of children and adolescents

Hygiene of ado­les­cents and chil­dren is one of the branch­es of hygiene that stud­ies the prob­lems of strength­en­ing and pro­tect­ing the health of the younger gen­er­a­tion. Require­ments and norms for the envi­ron­ment that sur­rounds the child are devel­oped and estab­lished, con­clu­sions are drawn about the body’s adapt­abil­i­ty to exter­nal changes. Activ­i­ties such as recre­ation, the edu­ca­tion­al process, sports activ­i­ties, etc. are being cap­tured. Pre­ven­tive mea­sures are being tak­en, the main task of which is to improve and, of course, pre­serve the healthy body of the child.

As one of the areas of med­ical sci­ence, the hygiene of chil­dren and ado­les­cents arose in the mid­dle of the nine­teenth cen­tu­ry. Among the school­child­ren of that time, cas­es of a num­ber of dis­eases became more fre­quent. We are talk­ing about neuras­the­nia, myopia, ane­mia, sco­l­io­sis, etc. Pub­li­ca­tions on hygiene, regard­ing the so-called “school” dis­eases, were aimed at elim­i­nat­ing and reduc­ing their fre­quen­cy. The authors gave clear rec­om­men­da­tions for action and told what exact­ly need­ed to be changed in the usu­al way of life. The main caus­es of dis­eases includ­ed poor ven­ti­la­tion of the premis­es, insuf­fi­cient light­ing, the com­plex­i­ty of the edu­ca­tion­al process, etc.

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Nowa­days, the activ­i­ty of hygiene of chil­dren and ado­les­cents is based on the lat­est sci­en­tif­ic devel­op­ments and is an impor­tant part of the san­i­tary and epi­demi­o­log­i­cal ser­vice of the state.

By Yraa

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