Lenses for keratoconus in adults

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Lenses for keratoconus in adults

Ker­a­to­conus is a pathol­o­gy in which the cornea thins and bulges for­ward, result­ing in a cone shape. Often this con­di­tion pro­vokes astig­ma­tism or myopia. Is it pos­si­ble to wear lens­es with such a pathol­o­gy?
Lenses for keratoconus in adults
Lens­es for ker­a­to­conus in adults.

With the devel­op­ment of ker­a­to­conus in the ini­tial stage, it is pos­si­ble to cor­rect vision prob­lems with ordi­nary con­tact lens­es. But at a lat­er date, the selec­tion of spe­cif­ic, ker­a­to­conus lens­es is nec­es­sary.

Ker­a­to­conus occurs as a result of a dys­troph­ic process in the cornea, which leads to its thin­ning, the for­ma­tion of a cone-shaped pro­tru­sion. Although the pathol­o­gy itself has been described for a long time, the exact cause of its devel­op­ment has not been estab­lished to date, and after the diag­no­sis is made, it is dif­fi­cult to deter­mine what the course will be.

Man­i­fes­ta­tions occur at a young age, usu­al­ly at 15–25 years, devel­op­ment is pos­si­ble both rapid and slow, some­times the dis­ease dis­ap­pears spon­ta­neous­ly, but in some cas­es pro­gres­sion occurs with defor­ma­tion of the cornea.

Among the key com­plaints, there may be dou­ble vision, signs of myopia, which becomes the rea­son for the selec­tion of glass­es or lens­es, but they help for a short time and reveal the true cause of the pathol­o­gy in the topog­ra­phy of the cornea.

Basi­cal­ly, with ker­a­to­conus, myopia or astig­ma­tism occurs, which is asso­ci­at­ed with a change in the cur­va­ture of the cornea, but stan­dard lens­es or glass­es become “small” in less than a year due to the pro­gres­sion of opti­cal dis­or­ders.

Can I wear lenses with keratoconus?

It is impor­tant to empha­size that the use of glass­es or lens­es in the devel­op­ment of ker­a­to­conus does not help in the treat­ment of pathol­o­gy. Opti­cal prod­ucts only help to com­pen­sate for exist­ing visu­al defects, but the dis­ease itself can con­tin­ue its pro­gres­sion.

Glass­es for the cor­rec­tion of visu­al patholo­gies against the back­ground of ker­a­to­conus are rarely used, they can­not com­plete­ly elim­i­nate aber­ra­tions. Con­tact lens­es fit snug­ly to the sur­face of the cornea, and there­fore help in the elim­i­na­tion of visu­al dis­tur­bances.

Which lenses are best for keratoconus?

Soft stan­dard lens­es can only be used in the ini­tial stage of pathol­o­gy, if the refrac­tive changes are up to 2.5 diopters. Sub­se­quent­ly, clear­er vision can be achieved by using a toric design lens. In addi­tion, it is nec­es­sary to choose mod­els with sil­i­co-hydro­gel mate­r­i­al, due to their high gas per­me­abil­i­ty.

Impor­tant

How to choose lens­es for the eyes: advice from doc­tors

In the late stage of the dis­ease, spe­cial­ized ker­a­to­conus lens­es are used, they are made only to order accord­ing to the indi­vid­ual size of the cornea. They can be either soft or hard or hybrid.

What is the difference between keratoconus lenses and regular lenses?

The selec­tion of lens­es for patients with ker­a­to­conus should only be han­dled by an oph­thal­mol­o­gist. They will be made indi­vid­u­al­ly, accord­ing to the size of the cornea. If these are soft prod­ucts that are per­formed indi­vid­u­al­ly, they are divid­ed into two groups:

    axisymmetric, having a thickening in the center — these lenses can correct myopia, but are not able to eliminate astigmatism, they are suitable only for keratoconus, in which the cornea is less damaged in the center than in the periphery;
    toric lenses will help with astigmatism, especially with its high degree.
Contact lenses for eyes.  Photo: Pixabay
Pho­to: Pix­abay

If these are hard lens­es, they are also divid­ed by size and divid­ed into two groups:

    with a small diameter (up to 10 mm), corneal — quite often several different pairs of lenses of different designs are made to order, selecting them for maximum wearing comfort.
    with a large size (from 13.5 mm or more), corneoscleral or scleral, gas-permeable products that, when worn, rest on the sclera without touching the area of ​​​​the keratoconus itself — they are more comfortable, but more difficult to select.

Hybrid prod­ucts are a com­bi­na­tion of the two pre­vi­ous groups. Their cen­tral part is made of an oxy­gen-per­me­able mate­r­i­al, but on the periph­ery they are soft, made of sil­i­cone hydro­gel. These lens­es are com­fort­able, well fixed on the cornea, pro­vide high-qual­i­ty vision cor­rec­tion, but they can­not be used when the cornea is dry.

Reviews of doctors about lenses for keratoconus

“Giv­en the severe astig­ma­tism that accom­pa­nies ker­a­to­conus, as a rule, con­tact cor­rec­tion becomes an option for achiev­ing the best visu­al acu­ity,” says oph­thal­mol­o­gist Max­im Kolomeyt­sev. – Tim­ing and fre­quen­cy of lens replace­ment can vary great­ly depend­ing on the type of lens cho­sen (soft con­tact lens­es or rigid gas per­me­able lens­es) and the rate of dis­ease pro­gres­sion.

Popular questions and answers

We spoke with oph­thal­mol­o­gist Max­im Kolomeyt­sev about the prob­lem of ker­a­to­conus and lens cor­rec­tion in it, clar­i­fied some of the nuances of treat­ment.

Are there any contraindications for lens correction of keratoconus?

As a rule, in cas­es of severe ker­a­to­conus with the for­ma­tion of mas­sive scars on the cornea, which reduce its trans­paren­cy, there is no longer any need for opti­cal vision cor­rec­tion. In such cas­es, the issue of sur­gi­cal treat­ment of ker­a­to­conus (corneal trans­plan­ta­tion) is solved.

What to do if the lenses do not help?

In cas­es where it is impos­si­ble to achieve a sat­is­fac­to­ry effect in the lens­es in terms of visu­al acu­ity, the issue of sur­gi­cal treat­ment of ker­a­to­conus is resolved.

Can lenses worsen the pathology, lead to complications?

Incor­rect­ly select­ed lens­es can aggra­vate the course of the dis­ease, due to addi­tion­al mechan­i­cal dam­age to the cornea. This may be a trig­ger for a faster rate of dis­ease pro­gres­sion.

By Yraa

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