Possibilities of smartphones in diagnostics and prevention

By Yraa #able, #access, #according, #accuracy, #accurate, #actions, #activity, #adapted, #additional, #advanced, #afraid, #age, #aimed, #alone, #already, #although, #always, #analysis, #analyze, #answers, #apnea, #appear, #appearance, #application, #applications, #appointment, #available, #average, #based, #become, #been, #being, #biological, #blood, #Body, #breaks, #breathing, #brought, #build, #built, #c, #calories, #cardiovascular, #cardiovascular disease, #Care, #cause, #chair, #check, #children, #cognitive, #color, #combat, #come, #common, #communication, #compared, #complex, #complicated, #computer, #condition, #connection, #correct, #count, #d, #defenses, #demand, #depression, #depth, #design, #detailed, #determine, #developed, #developing, #devices, #diabetes, #diagnosis, #diagnostics, #did, #disease, #diseases, #disorders, #disturbance, #doctors, #drop, #due, #elderly, #enough, #equipment, #equipped, #especially, #even, #every, #everything, #examination, #example, #exceeds, #exhalation, #expensive, #experts, #fact, #familiar, #family, #filled, #find, #finger, #fitness, #fluctuations, #fluid, #form, #found, #four, #frequency, #functionality, #functions, #future, #gadgets, #generation, #genetic, #guide, #habits, #half, #hand, #hands, #he, #health, #Healthy, #heart, #Heat, #help, #Helps, #here, #his, #hold, #holding, #Home, #however, #human, #identify, #immune, #increased, #indicators, #infection, #information, #inhalation, #internet, #itself, #just, #laboratory, #lack, #leads, #least, #leaving, #lesions, #let, #level, #levels, #limit, #limited, #longer, #look, #losing, #lost, #lot, #low, #lower, #man, #manifestations, #market, #may, #mean, #measure, #medicine, #million, #model, #models, #modern, #moisture, #moment, #money, #monitor, #moreover, #motion, #much, #nature, #needed, #new, #night, #normally, #nursing, #obesity, #offer, #ones, #operation, #our, #oxygen, #parents, #part, #partner, #pathologies, #patients, #period, #photo, #physical, #physical activity, #plan, #point, #positive, #Power, #powerful, #presence, #press, #price, #problems, #process, #processed, #pulse, #purchase, #put, #questions, #raise, #range, #rare, #rate, #re, #react, #real, #reasons, #record, #Reduce, #reduced, #replace, #require, #rescue, #respiratory, #results, #risk, #sale, #say, #scale, #scientists, #screen, #second, #seconds, #self, #send, #Sensitive, #serious, #set, #show, #signal, #signals, #signs, #similar, #simple, #Skin, #sleep, #Sleeping, #small, #smartphone, #something, #soundly, #special, #specialists, #speed, #spend, #start, #statistics, #structure, #study, #system, #systematic, #t, #take, #takes, #technique, #technology, #temperature, #tests, #themselves, #therapy, #those, #threatens, #today, #too, #tool, #turn, #turned, #turns, #two, #undergo, #understand, #university, #us, #various, #visual, #wake, #was, #way, #weight, #were, #while, #who, #why, #widely, #will, #world, #year

Smart­phones today are not just com­mu­ni­ca­tion devices. Call­ing them “smart phones” is no longer enough — they can do much more. For exam­ple, wake up in the morn­ing at the most oppor­tune moment (which the pro­gram will deter­mine on its own), check the owner’s con­di­tion, assess the lev­el of stress by voice and health risks by indi­ca­tors, and offer to make an appoint­ment with a doc­tor. And all this is avail­able today.

Every day we hold in our hands the most pow­er­ful tool for man­ag­ing our own health. Cam­eras, accelerom­e­ters, com­put­ing pow­er and Inter­net access turn a smart­phone into a micro­scope, heart mon­i­tor, tremor detec­tor and blood ana­lyz­er.

There are already sen­sors for smart­phones to ana­lyze skin lesions, detect depres­sion, Alzheimer’s dis­ease, COVID-19, take a sper­mo­gram and an ECG with­out leav­ing home. Meet your smart­phone as a guide to the world of dig­i­tal med­i­cine. What can he do?

Fitness apps

Fitness apps

Let’s start with a sim­ple and famil­iar one: assess­ing the lev­el of activ­i­ty based on motion sen­sors, cal­cu­lat­ing calo­ries burned and remind­ing you to get up from your chair. Why is this also part of health care?

It’s not just about los­ing weight: one in four adults, accord­ing to the World Health Orga­ni­za­tion, has a lack of phys­i­cal activ­i­ty. This means an increased risk of dia­betes, obe­si­ty and car­dio­vas­cu­lar dis­ease.

Fit­ness apps on smart­phones aren’t lim­it­ed to activ­i­ty track­ing, they mea­sure sleep as well. Intel­li­gent fea­tures help iden­ti­fy and cor­rect abnor­mal sleep habits. And also to iden­ti­fy the risks of reduced immune defens­es and Alzheimer’s dis­ease — they also man­i­fest them­selves in the way we sleep.

Analysis of hemoglobin level

Non-inva­sive tech­nol­o­gy for assess­ing the lev­el of hemo­glo­bin is avail­able to every­one: just look at the col­or of the low­er inner eye­lid. Nor­mal­ly, it is pink — due to the fill­ing of the microvas­cu­lar struc­ture. With ane­mia, the red­ness is lost, and the shades become pale. A blood test is need­ed to con­firm sus­pi­cions of a low hemo­glo­bin count.

How­ev­er, US sci­en­tists have already devel­oped a smart­phone app that eval­u­ates an image of the inner eye­lid and cal­cu­lates hemo­glo­bin lev­els with lab­o­ra­to­ry-like accu­ra­cy. And all this — in a sim­ple pic­ture.

How much oxygen is in the blood?

How much oxygen is in the blood?

The need to mea­sure blood oxy­gen lev­els has been wide­ly dis­cussed in con­nec­tion with COVID-19, and oxime­ters have become so in demand that they have sky­rock­et­ed in price and dis­ap­peared from sale. How­ev­er, oxy­gen sat­u­ra­tion should also be mon­i­tored for oth­er ill­ness­es, espe­cial­ly dur­ing flu and SARS sea­sons.

In order for patients at risk not to spend mon­ey on the pur­chase of spe­cial devices, smart­phones (for exam­ple, Sam­sung) have built-in pulse oxime­try sen­sors. For oth­er phones, there are appli­ca­tions that help sim­i­lar func­tions accord­ing to the cam­era data.

For experts, the read­ings of such sen­sors and appli­ca­tions raise ques­tions about the accu­ra­cy of diag­nos­tics.

But thanks to the new coro­n­avirus infec­tion (at least it brought some­thing pos­i­tive), more sen­si­tive sen­sors are appear­ing, which devel­op­ers plan to embed in new smart­phone mod­els.

Thermometer that is always with you

The sim­plest and most famil­iar bio­mark­er — body tem­per­a­ture — has not yet been able to mea­sure smart­phones. A lot of com­plex fea­tures for these gad­gets turned out to be much more acces­si­ble than esti­mat­ing this sim­ple para­me­ter.

There were two rea­sons — inap­pro­pri­ate design and heat gen­er­a­tion by the smart­phone itself dur­ing oper­a­tion. So, Sam­sung at one time tried to build a ther­mome­ter into a smart­phone, but in the end refused — every­thing is too com­pli­cat­ed.

But Huawei engi­neers turned out to be more sophis­ti­cat­ed: in Chi­na, a new Hon­or mod­el is already on sale, which is equipped with an infrared sen­sor. It is enough just to put the phone to a per­son or object, and the screen will show the tem­per­a­ture of the object. More­over, the inven­tors did not lim­it them­selves to the range of indi­ca­tors for the human body: as they say, the smart­phone eval­u­ates every­thing in the range from ‑20 ° C to 100 ° C.

Rare genetic pathologies

The prob­lem with diag­nos­ing rare hered­i­tary dis­eases is that they are rare. Although about half a mil­lion chil­dren with such patholo­gies are born every year in the world, this does not mean that every doc­tor in his work has encoun­tered exam­ples of such dis­eases and knows how they man­i­fest them­selves.

To help spe­cial­ists, as well as par­ents and the chil­dren them­selves, Kau­nas Uni­ver­si­ty of Tech­nol­o­gy (Lithua­nia) has devel­oped an appli­ca­tion that detects Hunt­ing­ton’s dis­ease by ear­ly signs — when there are no visu­al man­i­fes­ta­tions.

It is based on a set of tests to assess phys­i­cal and cog­ni­tive skills and ear­ly signs of their decline. And although there is no ther­a­py for this dis­ease, ear­ly detec­tion helps to increase life expectan­cy and the “win­dow” of a healthy peri­od.

Sleep apnea and smartphone

Sleep apnea and smartphone

Sleep apnea is a seri­ous prob­lem that leads to var­i­ous dis­or­ders. If a per­son snores and breaks appear in the process of breath­ing, this is it, apnea. How­ev­er, those who spend their nights alone or near a sound­ly sleep­ing part­ner, or who do not snore in their sleep (which is espe­cial­ly com­mon in chil­dren), need polysomnog­ra­phy. How­ev­er, those who snore should also under­go such a study in order to assess the scale of the prob­lem and under­stand what threat­ens sleep dis­tur­bance.

How­ev­er, polysomnog­ra­phy means that one has to spend the night in the clin­ic, while sleep­ing entan­gled with wires and sen­sors. In addi­tion to the avail­abil­i­ty of such a tech­nique only in large cen­ters, this is also an expen­sive study. And here smart­phones come to the res­cue again.

ApneaApp is an appli­ca­tion devel­oped at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Wash­ing­ton. Thanks to its func­tion­al­i­ty, the smart­phone turns into an active sonar with­out addi­tion­al equip­ment.

In the first tri­als, the app was com­pared with polysomnog­ra­phy results and found to be 98% accu­rate.

Mole or melanoma?

Even small pret­ty moles may not be so harm­less. For self-assess­ment, there are appli­ca­tions that require answers to ques­tions, for a more detailed diag­no­sis, there are actions to com­bat melanoma, when doc­tors can send pho­tos of sus­pi­cious skin for­ma­tions.

And for smart­phones, appli­ca­tions have been devel­oped that eval­u­ate moles from a pho­to from a cam­era. They oper­ate accord­ing to a built-in algo­rithm, and the most advanced ones send a pic­ture to real doc­tors for analy­sis and rec­om­men­da­tions. And then they can remind you of the need to re-eval­u­ate the con­di­tion of the skin.

Heart Problems: Mini ECG

In fact, the mar­ket is filled with var­i­ous appli­ca­tions that esti­mate the heart rate by pulse — just press your fin­ger to the smart­phone’s cam­era. But most have a lot of draw­backs — from accu­ra­cy to the inabil­i­ty to record and eval­u­ate results.

How­ev­er, there is already an appli­ca­tion devel­oped by the Finns that does not work accord­ing to data from the cam­era, but based on infor­ma­tion from the accelerom­e­ter and gyro­scope, which are in all mod­ern smart­phones. It helps to iden­ti­fy a dan­ger­ous form of arrhyth­mia — atri­al fib­ril­la­tion.

Unlike oth­er appli­ca­tions, for this you need not to press your fin­ger to the cam­era, but to put the smart­phone on your chest. The fluc­tu­a­tions of the gad­get dur­ing the heart­beat are processed by an algo­rithm, and the analy­sis results are 95% accu­rate.

Conception and smartphone

Conception and smartphone

Accord­ing to sta­tis­tics, the aver­age man is afraid to find out that the cause of fam­i­ly infer­til­i­ty is in his “tad­poles”. From the appear­ance of the prob­lem to the sper­mo­gram, it usu­al­ly takes at least a year.

To reduce stress, there are spe­cial devices — mini-cam­eras for smart­phones. And appli­ca­tions — one esti­mates the activ­i­ty and the num­ber of sperm in a drop of sem­i­nal flu­id, the sec­ond — the dates of ovu­la­tion (with an accu­ra­cy of 98%), to max­i­mize the chances of con­cep­tion.

HIV test

Instant HIV test­ing is also already avail­able — you need an app and a dis­pos­able smart­phone sen­sor from experts from Uni­ver­si­ty Col­lege Lon­don. The accu­ra­cy exceeds the read­ings of the tests, and the exam­i­na­tion time takes no more than 10 sec­onds.

Inside the sen­sor is a com­put­er chip with chan­nels coat­ed with spe­cial par­ti­cles that react to the immun­od­e­fi­cien­cy virus in blood, sali­va and oth­er bio­log­i­cal flu­ids. If the par­ti­cles react, the sen­sor sends a sig­nal to the smart­phone.

Diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases by speech

The Cana­di­an com­pa­ny Win­terLight Labs has devel­oped an appli­ca­tion that responds to sub­tle sig­nals in the voice. It helps to ana­lyze speech and detect Alzheimer’s dis­ease, age-relat­ed neu­rode­gen­er­a­tion (senile demen­tia), signs of apha­sia — for exam­ple, after a microstroke.

At the moment, the algo­rithm is being adapt­ed for smart­phones. It can prove invalu­able to rel­a­tives of the elder­ly and health care work­ers in nurs­ing homes.

Greece is devel­op­ing an appli­ca­tion for the ear­ly diag­no­sis of Parkin­son’s dis­ease. It will assess the state of a per­son by voice, self­ie, as well as by the pres­ence of hand tremors in the process of hold­ing a smart­phone.

The smartphone will evaluate the nature of the cough

A new app from doc­tors in Mass­a­chu­setts is aimed at diag­nos­ing res­pi­ra­to­ry infec­tions in chil­dren. ResAp­pDx ana­lyzes cough — fre­quen­cy, depth, mois­ture, time of occur­rence — on inhala­tion or exha­la­tion, which in the future will help replace a lot of lab­o­ra­to­ry tests and speed up an accu­rate diag­no­sis.

Can Smart­phone Apps Increase Phys­i­cal Activ­i­ty? Sys­tem­at­ic Review and Meta-Analy­sis. / Romeo A, Edney S, Plot­nikoff R, et al. // J Med Inter­net Res - 2019 - 21(3)

Smart­phone based bio­an­a­lyt­i­cal and diag­no­sis appli­ca­tions: A review. / Kanchi S, Sabela MI, Mdluli PS, et al. // Biosens Bio­elec­tron - 2018

Auto­mat­ic smart­phone-based microflu­idic biosen­sor sys­tem at the point of care. / Xu D, Huang X, Guo J, Ma X. // Biosens Bio­elec­tron - 2018 - 110

Smart­phone Appli­ca­tions for Patients’ Health and Fit­ness. / Hig­gins JP. // Am J Med - 2016 - 129(1)

By Yraa

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