Prevention and treatment of sleep disorders: an appointment with a doctor

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Accord­ing to sta­tis­tics, every third adult chron­i­cal­ly does not get enough sleep. Irreg­u­lar, inad­e­quate sleep neg­a­tive­ly affects over­all well-being and gives rise to a wide vari­ety of health prob­lems (from depres­sion to dia­betes, from obe­si­ty to car­diopatholo­gies). For the pre­ven­tion of any dis­eases asso­ci­at­ed with a lack of prop­er rest, con­trol and rec­om­men­da­tions from spe­cial­ists are impor­tant. To receive them, you need to make an appoint­ment with a doc­tor by phone +7 (499) 519–32-56 and a time­ly vis­it to the appoint­ment.

Early diagnosis: an appointment with a general practitioner

Early diagnosis: an appointment with a general practitioner

In order to get rid of prob­lems with falling asleep and learn how to sleep sweet­ly all night again, you first need to find out why your sleep has wors­ened. Some­times the rea­son, as they say, lies on the sur­face. But some­times only an appoint­ment with a gen­er­al prac­ti­tion­er and a sub­se­quent vis­it to him helps to find out.

It is espe­cial­ly dif­fi­cult to diag­nose sleep dis­or­ders if their ori­gin is not based on indi­vid­ual phys­i­cal or men­tal dis­or­ders, but on com­bined fac­tors.

Here are some of the most com­mon ones:

    any chronic diseases that in themselves are already stressful for the body;
    Iron-deficiency anemia;
    significant emotional experiences;
    genetic disorders;
    overweight;
    taking certain medications;
    wrong sleep-wake mode;
    intake of alcohol and other toxic substances;
    deviated septum, etc.

After find­ing out the cause, it will be pos­si­ble to elim­i­nate or reduce its neg­a­tive impact (as far as pos­si­ble), as well as stop the devel­op­ment of many con­comi­tant, includ­ing very seri­ous, patholo­gies.

If insom­nia “vis­its” not occa­sion­al­ly, after emo­tion­al upheavals or jet lag, but reg­u­lar­ly (with or with­out rea­son), you should imme­di­ate­ly pick up the phone to coor­di­nate an appoint­ment with a gen­er­al prac­ti­tion­er who will help dis­pel fears or estab­lish a diag­no­sis , or (if it is nec­es­sary to clar­i­fy the pre­lim­i­nary diag­no­sis, spe­cial exam­i­na­tion, appoint­ment and adjust­ment of treat­ment) will refer for help to a som­nol­o­gist, sur­geon, neu­ropathol­o­gist, psy­chi­a­trist, and oth­er spe­cial­ists.

The diag­nos­tic process varies great­ly depend­ing on the patien­t’s prob­lems. Usu­al­ly, after mak­ing an appoint­ment with a doc­tor, dur­ing the first con­sul­ta­tion, a sur­vey and study of the med­ical his­to­ry are com­bined with an exam­i­na­tion and spe­cial tests.

If you sus­pect insom­nia and some oth­er dis­or­ders, it may be rec­om­mend­ed:

    record each dream, describing in detail its duration, quality, features, in a special diary for 1–2 weeks;
    undergo an additional high-tech examination, polysomnography, which includes night or 24-hour monitoring and allows you to control breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, brain activity.

Major sleep disorders

Major sleep disorders

Sleep dis­or­ders can man­i­fest them­selves not only dur­ing a long night’s rest, but also dur­ing the day, dur­ing peri­ods of active wake­ful­ness.

There are many more or less dan­ger­ous con­di­tions, unit­ed in every­day life by the col­lec­tive name “bad sleep.” To date, over 90 such dis­or­ders are known to med­i­cine.

Let’s talk about some of them.

Insomnia

It is the most com­mon sleep dis­or­der. Its gen­er­al symp­toms are:

    problems with falling asleep or inability to fully sleep during the entire time specially allotted for this;
    excessive fatigue during the entire period of wakefulness;
    excessive nervousness;
    concentration and memory disorders.

Two types of such vio­la­tions are known:

    primary insomnia (not caused by any disease);
    secondary (is a consequence of other pathologies).

About 50% of adults today com­plain that their sleep is too lim­it­ed (from one to sev­er­al nights per week). Approx­i­mate­ly 10% of men and women are diag­nosed with chron­ic insom­nia, char­ac­ter­ized by long peri­ods of “sleep depri­va­tion” that last longer than a month.

sleep apnea

Sleep apnea is a dan­ger­ous con­di­tion char­ac­ter­ized by per­sis­tent paus­es in breath­ing after falling asleep, which can occur hun­dreds of times a night, wreak­ing hav­oc on the body and turn­ing sleep from a wel­come get­away into a high­ly risky “adven­ture.”

Among its symp­toms

    cessation of breathing during sleep for 10 or more seconds;
    snore;
    sudden awakenings against the background of a feeling of suffocation;
    obsessive drowsiness during periods of wakefulness;
    morning dryness of the oral mucosa, sometimes sore throat.

There are two types of such vio­la­tions:

    the most common is obstructive sleep apnea (sometimes caused by partial or complete blockage of the airways);
    central apnea — respiratory arrest due to disorders in the brain (for example, a previous stroke), defects in the “signaling system” that incorrectly transmits its “orders” to certain muscle groups involved in breathing, and they can also be a consequence of heart failure.

Narcolepsy

This is a neu­ro­log­i­cal dis­ease in which the brain does not prop­er­ly con­trol the body dur­ing sleep and wake­ful­ness.

It is char­ac­ter­ized by the fol­low­ing fea­tures:

    constant drowsiness during periods of wakefulness;
    a sudden, overpowering urge to sleep, resulting in the person sometimes falling asleep (literally) while sitting or walking;
    cataplexy (a sharp decrease in muscle tone or an absolute loss of muscle control);
    paralysis upon awakening, suddenly depriving the ability to move and speak;
    insomnia.

There are two types of pathol­o­gy:

    narcolepsy of the first type — is diagnosed in patients in case of insufficient production in the brain of a special substance — hypocretin, which helps regulate sleep and wake cycles in the body;
    Type II narcolepsy is characterized by the presence of the same pathological symptoms, but without a significant decrease in hypocretin levels.

restless leg syndrome

A spe­cial con­di­tion that declares itself by unpleas­ant sen­sa­tions in the limbs (usu­al­ly in the low­er ones). They encour­age the patient to make cer­tain move­ments to get rid of dis­com­fort. Patients usu­al­ly com­plain about:

    numbness;
    tingling;
    pain;
    burning.

As a rule, these sen­sa­tions over­take a per­son suf­fer­ing from rest­less leg syn­drome in bed or over­come after sig­nif­i­cant peri­ods of inac­tiv­i­ty.

This vio­la­tion is diag­nosed in almost 15% of peo­ple suf­fer­ing from insom­nia.

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Prevention: to sleep soundly

Pre­ven­tion offers sev­er­al uni­ver­sal lifestyle rec­om­men­da­tions that can be adopt­ed by any­one who has prob­lems get­ting a good night’s rest. Should:

    establish and consistently adhere to a specific daily routine;
    move actively for at least 30 minutes five days a week;
    follow a healthy diet;
    avoid daytime sleep;
    reduce the consumption of caffeinated drinks;
    create pleasant, relaxing nervous system conditions for falling asleep;
    strive for normal weight;
    quit smoking;
    do not stay in bed after waking up (even if sleep was interrupted in the middle of the night, you should get up for a while, and then go back to bed and try to fall asleep);
    avoid watching TV, working at a computer and any other exposure to electronic devices immediately before falling asleep.

By Yraa

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