According to statistics, every third adult chronically does not get enough sleep. Irregular, inadequate sleep negatively affects overall well-being and gives rise to a wide variety of health problems (from depression to diabetes, from obesity to cardiopathologies). For the prevention of any diseases associated with a lack of proper rest, control and recommendations from specialists are important. To receive them, you need to make an appointment with a doctor by phone +7 (499) 519–32-56 and a timely visit to the appointment.
Early diagnosis: an appointment with a general practitioner
In order to get rid of problems with falling asleep and learn how to sleep sweetly all night again, you first need to find out why your sleep has worsened. Sometimes the reason, as they say, lies on the surface. But sometimes only an appointment with a general practitioner and a subsequent visit to him helps to find out.
It is especially difficult to diagnose sleep disorders if their origin is not based on individual physical or mental disorders, but on combined factors.
Here are some of the most common ones:
any chronic diseases that in themselves are already stressful for the body;
significant emotional experiences;
taking certain medications;
wrong sleep-wake mode;
intake of alcohol and other toxic substances;
deviated septum, etc.
After finding out the cause, it will be possible to eliminate or reduce its negative impact (as far as possible), as well as stop the development of many concomitant, including very serious, pathologies.
If insomnia “visits” not occasionally, after emotional upheavals or jet lag, but regularly (with or without reason), you should immediately pick up the phone to coordinate an appointment with a general practitioner who will help dispel fears or establish a diagnosis , or (if it is necessary to clarify the preliminary diagnosis, special examination, appointment and adjustment of treatment) will refer for help to a somnologist, surgeon, neuropathologist, psychiatrist, and other specialists.
The diagnostic process varies greatly depending on the patient’s problems. Usually, after making an appointment with a doctor, during the first consultation, a survey and study of the medical history are combined with an examination and special tests.
If you suspect insomnia and some other disorders, it may be recommended:
record each dream, describing in detail its duration, quality, features, in a special diary for 1–2 weeks;
undergo an additional high-tech examination, polysomnography, which includes night or 24-hour monitoring and allows you to control breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, brain activity.
Major sleep disorders
Sleep disorders can manifest themselves not only during a long night’s rest, but also during the day, during periods of active wakefulness.
There are many more or less dangerous conditions, united in everyday life by the collective name “bad sleep.” To date, over 90 such disorders are known to medicine.
Let’s talk about some of them.
It is the most common sleep disorder. Its general symptoms are:
problems with falling asleep or inability to fully sleep during the entire time specially allotted for this;
excessive fatigue during the entire period of wakefulness;
concentration and memory disorders.
Two types of such violations are known:
primary insomnia (not caused by any disease);
secondary (is a consequence of other pathologies).
About 50% of adults today complain that their sleep is too limited (from one to several nights per week). Approximately 10% of men and women are diagnosed with chronic insomnia, characterized by long periods of “sleep deprivation” that last longer than a month.
Sleep apnea is a dangerous condition characterized by persistent pauses in breathing after falling asleep, which can occur hundreds of times a night, wreaking havoc on the body and turning sleep from a welcome getaway into a highly risky “adventure.”
Among its symptoms
cessation of breathing during sleep for 10 or more seconds;
sudden awakenings against the background of a feeling of suffocation;
obsessive drowsiness during periods of wakefulness;
morning dryness of the oral mucosa, sometimes sore throat.
There are two types of such violations:
the most common is obstructive sleep apnea (sometimes caused by partial or complete blockage of the airways);
central apnea — respiratory arrest due to disorders in the brain (for example, a previous stroke), defects in the “signaling system” that incorrectly transmits its “orders” to certain muscle groups involved in breathing, and they can also be a consequence of heart failure.
This is a neurological disease in which the brain does not properly control the body during sleep and wakefulness.
It is characterized by the following features:
constant drowsiness during periods of wakefulness;
a sudden, overpowering urge to sleep, resulting in the person sometimes falling asleep (literally) while sitting or walking;
cataplexy (a sharp decrease in muscle tone or an absolute loss of muscle control);
paralysis upon awakening, suddenly depriving the ability to move and speak;
There are two types of pathology:
narcolepsy of the first type — is diagnosed in patients in case of insufficient production in the brain of a special substance — hypocretin, which helps regulate sleep and wake cycles in the body;
Type II narcolepsy is characterized by the presence of the same pathological symptoms, but without a significant decrease in hypocretin levels.
restless leg syndrome
A special condition that declares itself by unpleasant sensations in the limbs (usually in the lower ones). They encourage the patient to make certain movements to get rid of discomfort. Patients usually complain about:
As a rule, these sensations overtake a person suffering from restless leg syndrome in bed or overcome after significant periods of inactivity.
This violation is diagnosed in almost 15% of people suffering from insomnia.
Prevention: to sleep soundly
Prevention offers several universal lifestyle recommendations that can be adopted by anyone who has problems getting a good night’s rest. Should: