Snoring: causes, mechanisms of development and methods of treatment

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Accord­ing to sta­tis­tics, one in five peo­ple snores in their sleep. This dis­rupts the sleep of not only the snor­er, but also the spouse sleep­ing next to him. After all, old­er peo­ple, both men and women, are more like­ly to suf­fer from this dis­ease. Snor­ing is a symp­tom of the pathol­o­gy of the ENT organs, over­weight or func­tion­al dis­or­ders. It can be accom­pa­nied by bouts of sleep apnea — stop­ping breath­ing for a few sec­onds, lead­ing to oxy­gen star­va­tion of the organs. Due to the extreme­ly high preva­lence of this con­di­tion, the Healthy­in­fo site will look into why it occurs and how to cure this prob­lem.

Description and causes of snoring

Description and causes of snoring

Snor­ing is a breath­ing dis­or­der dur­ing sleep that is accom­pa­nied by a low fre­quen­cy rat­tling sound. Due to the relaxed state of the soft palate and the mus­cles of the phar­ynx, the inhaled air can­not pass through the upper res­pi­ra­to­ry tract ful­ly. The soft tis­sues of the lar­ynx and phar­ynx begin to vibrate, mak­ing the cor­re­spond­ing sound. The caus­es of snor­ing are known enough today. Today, the most basic of them will be con­sid­ered — knowl­edge of these con­di­tions large­ly answers the ques­tion of how to cure snor­ing.

Con­gen­i­tal anatom­i­cal fea­tures of the struc­ture of the laryn­gophar­ynx serve as proof of the pres­ence of snor­ing at an ear­ly age. The elon­gat­ed uvu­la, being a process of the soft palate, blocks the lumen of the phar­ynx, and the air can­not pass fur­ther. Oth­er, no less sig­nif­i­cant, devel­op­men­tal anom­alies include weak­ness of the mus­cles of the soft palate, a large tongue or a long palate. A com­mon cause diag­nosed in all age cat­e­gories is a devi­at­ed sep­tum. It is a plate that divides the nasal cav­i­ty in half. A devi­at­ed sep­tum, a fre­quent con­se­quence of nasal trau­ma, not only obstructs air­flow, but also con­tributes to the devel­op­ment of chron­ic rhini­tis. Thus, it exac­er­bates the vio­la­tion of nasal breath­ing.

Dur­ing infec­tious dis­eases, the pala­tine ton­sils increase in size and block the lumen of the phar­ynx. Air pass­ing through the nar­rowed gap caus­es vibra­tions of the cor­re­spond­ing mus­cles and snor­ing occurs. Diag­nos­ing this con­di­tion is not dif­fi­cult. It is dif­fi­cult for such peo­ple to breathe, so when they talk, their res­pi­ra­to­ry rate increas­es and their mouth is ajar. Ade­noids can block the lumen of the nasophar­ynx — an enlarged pha­ryn­geal ton­sil. Lym­phoid tis­sue grows under the influ­ence of aller­gic or infec­tious agents. Chil­dren are sus­cep­ti­ble to the dis­ease. In addi­tion to snor­ing, ade­noids cause hear­ing loss and nasal breath­ing dif­fi­cul­ties.

Polyps are growths of the nasal mucosa. This is a com­mon pathol­o­gy among adults. It is diag­nosed only when the polyp reach­es a large size and blocks the nasal pas­sages. Against this back­ground, it is pos­si­ble to attach an infec­tion, catarrhal and vaso­mo­tor rhini­tis — due to the devel­op­ment of mucos­al ede­ma, they also con­tribute to the appear­ance of snor­ing. In old age, mus­cle tone is reduced, and in the supine posi­tion they sag. At the same time, air pass­ing through the res­pi­ra­to­ry tract caus­es vibra­tions of the pala­tine uvu­la. Among oth­er caus­es of snor­ing, men­tion should be made of obe­si­ty, the use of alco­holic bev­er­ages and seda­tives, and menopause in women.

Sleep snoring and breathing problems

Sleep snoring and breathing problems

Breath­ing dis­or­ders dur­ing sleep are very dan­ger­ous with the appear­ance of sleep apnea. The breath hold lasts a few sec­onds, but it can be repeat­ed up to sev­er­al hun­dred times dur­ing the night. At this point, the patient turns rest­less­ly in bed with­out wak­ing up. Restora­tion of breath­ing is accom­pa­nied by sonorous snor­ing in a dream. Apnea can be cen­tral, obstruc­tive or mixed gen­e­sis. Not all peo­ple who snore in their sleep expe­ri­ence breath hold­ing attacks. Apnea is more com­mon in men who are over­weight. The mech­a­nism of the appear­ance of this con­di­tion is the sub­si­dence of the air­ways at the lev­el of the soft palate, the root of the tongue and the epiglot­tis.

In the morn­ing, such patients have a headache, increased blood pres­sure. Dur­ing the day — drowsi­ness and fatigue. The most severe con­se­quences devel­op as a result of oxy­gen star­va­tion of organs. This is the risk of heart attacks, severe car­diac arrhyth­mias, strokes. The syn­the­sis of soma­totrop­ic hor­mone decreas­es and, there­by, the metab­o­lism of fats is dis­turbed. Food is not used to form ener­gy, but is deposit­ed in fat depots. Weight loss becomes almost impos­si­ble, and a vicious cir­cle clos­es.

Sleep snor­ing and hypox­ia are dan­ger­ous for dia­bet­ics. The pres­ence of these patholo­gies exac­er­bates the course of the dis­ease, and accel­er­ates the devel­op­ment of com­pli­ca­tions. Apnea is a rather dan­ger­ous con­di­tion, it can cause death not only for adults, but also for babies. Hered­i­ty plays a sig­nif­i­cant role in the devel­op­ment of breath hold­ing. There­fore, fam­i­lies in which the fact of sud­den infant death is record­ed should be extreme­ly care­ful.

How to cure snoring

How to cure snoring

Snor­ing, despite its preva­lence, is not a sen­tence, the main thing is to iden­ti­fy its cause in time. One of the com­mon rec­om­men­da­tions on how to cure snor­ing on your own is the cor­rect posi­tion in a dream — you need to sleep on your side with your head ele­vat­ed, for this you use an addi­tion­al pil­low. In case of inflam­ma­tion, you should pick up vaso­con­stric­tor drops, rinse the nasal cav­i­ty with a saline solu­tion, and if nec­es­sary, inhale with hot water and herbal infu­sion.

Drug treat­ment of snor­ing con­sists in the use of drugs such as Slipex or Dr. Khrap. They increase the tone of the mus­cles of the orophar­ynx and have a decon­ges­tant effect on the nasal mucosa. In phar­ma­cies, they are sold in the form of sprays and sprayed at night. Anti­sep­tics and antibi­otics are need­ed if an infec­tious process is sus­pect­ed; in case of aller­gic rhini­tis, anti­his­t­a­mines can­not be dis­pensed with. In the fight against snor­ing, not the last place is occu­pied by palatal implants and caps. The implant serves to strength­en the palate, it is admin­is­tered on an out­pa­tient basis, under local anes­the­sia. The cap, made of plas­tic, helps to keep the low­er jaw in the advanced state, pre­vent­ing the mus­cles of the phar­ynx from sub­sid­ing.

In the treat­ment of obstruc­tive sleep apnea, the CPAP method (from the Eng­lish abbre­vi­a­tion CPAP — Con­stant Pos­i­tive Air­way Pres­sure) is used. Its essence is to main­tain pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure dur­ing sleep. The answer to the ques­tion “How to cure snor­ing?” in some cas­es, a sur­geon can give — with the help of such oper­a­tions as uvu­lo­plas­ty, ton­sil­lec­to­my, sep­ti­coplas­ty, ade­noidec­to­my. Many meth­ods of treat­ment today allow us to pro­vide an indi­vid­ual approach to each patient. Thanks to this, it is pos­si­ble, if not to com­plete­ly cure snor­ing, then at least to dras­ti­cal­ly reduce the like­li­hood of such com­pli­ca­tions as sleep apnea and the oxy­gen star­va­tion asso­ci­at­ed with it.

By Yraa

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