In medicine, there are fairly common diseases and pathologies that many people suffer from, but there are a number of rare syndromes that have interesting or specific manifestations. Due to their rarity, few people know about them. Such syndromes are associated with injuries or strokes, sleep disorders or insomnia, impaired perception of pain, or the desire to constantly undergo surgery or treatment. Let’s talk about these syndromes in more detail.
Sleep related disorders
One particular sleep disorder is exploding head syndrome. Little has been written about such a deviation in the medical literature. With such an anomaly, a person’s sleep is disturbed as a result of the formation of loud noise or exploding sounds that occur inside the head and are felt by the patient during falling asleep or directly during sleep. Such “explosions” inside the head may be accompanied by flashes of light in the eyes, a feeling of horror and difficulty in breathing. According to doctors involved in the study of this syndrome, such phenomena are associated with stress and the patient’s state of overstrain. After proper rest, such symptoms usually disappear and sleep is restored.
More dangerous and severe is another syndrome, which is characterized by fatal familial insomnia (sleep problems that lead patients to death). This pathology is inherited and is not amenable to therapy, only forty families with such a special deviation have been identified worldwide. People from these families sleep less and less time as time goes on, falling asleep with great difficulty. Because of this, fatigue accumulates, hallucinations, delusional thoughts and headaches occur, and after a few years, death occurs due to overwork.
The basis of this pathology is the defeat of a special part of the brain, the thalamus, which is responsible for human sleep. It is this part of the brain that is responsible for the connection between the cerebral cortex and the body. It passes signals from the cortex to the body and vice versa. During sleep, the conduction of impulses through this zone is reduced, which gives the brain a rest. With this syndrome, these connections are disrupted, which affects sleep and its quality. Pathology occurs after 30 years, lasts from several months to one and a half years and ends in death.
head injury syndrome
A special disorder of speech functions, which is the result of trauma, is considered “foreign accent syndrome”. With it, trauma leads to special changes in the functioning of the brain, expressed in a slight change in intonation, stress in words and speed of speech. Because of this, the patient’s speech becomes similar to the conversation of those foreigners who master foreign languages. Usually a similar phenomenon is formed if there has been a serious head injury. Sometimes this can be a consequence of a stroke, after about one or two years, as the functionality of the brain tissue is restored. Since the 40s of the last century, scientists have recorded about 50 cases of such a disorder. Most of the patients, after the treatment, learned to speak correctly again, but some of them had a specific “accent” for the rest of their lives. One of the most notable cases was the story of a woman who was injured in a bombing in Norway, and after she left the hospital and recovered from her injury, she began to speak with a thick German accent. In another reported case, an English woman in her 60s began to speak with a Japanese-like accent after a stroke.
pain insensitivity syndrome
In a small proportion of people, a particular genetic breakdown leads to the shutdown of pain perception mechanisms. Due to changes in the genes, the transmission of pain impulses along sensory nerves suffers. Many may think that such a life, in which there is no suffering and pain, is simply ideal, but in reality, people who are deprived of such sensitivity are constantly risking their health and even life. The sensation of pain forces us to be careful and attentive so as not to get hurt, cut or break something. It is pain that is a signal of danger and an indicator of ill health in the internal organs.
People who are deprived of the feeling of pain can easily break or dislocate limbs, because they are not able to calculate the strength during movements, walking, and various habitual actions. Young children suffering from this syndrome can injure themselves, especially during periods of learning to walk, during teething. They can bite their tongue without noticing it, injure their arms, legs, face.
Scientists are closely studying such people; a rare genetic anomaly has been identified in several families in Pakistan. Due to closely related marriages in these families, children were regularly born into the world who were not sensitive to pain. They made a living by performing on the streets, injuring and injuring themselves. The peculiarity of the anomaly is that such people do not feel pain, but they perceive heat and cold, touch and taste well.
Munchausen’s syndrome: pathological passion for disease and simulation
Many are familiar with the literary baron Munchausen. A special syndrome in medicine is even named after him, in which people are prone to artificial simulation, excessive exaggeration, and the formation of symptoms of diseases in themselves. This is done so that imaginary diseases bring the patient to the hospital, to the operating table, or become an occasion for various medical manipulations. In addition, it is important for them that they are treated for a long time and actively by taking certain drugs and conducting medical procedures. Such patients can simulate a variety of illnesses, ranging from heart attacks, ending with asthma or tuberculosis, acute abdominal pain and ulcerative lesions.
They are characterized by swallowing foreign objects, so that there are reasons for the operation, taking various caustic substances, so that bleeding of internal organs opens, and deliberate injuries to the body. At the same time, such people can take many pills, knowing that they have no diseases and no indications for treatment either.