Unusual Syndromes: Sleep Disorders and Problems with Pain Sensitivity

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In med­i­cine, there are fair­ly com­mon dis­eases and patholo­gies that many peo­ple suf­fer from, but there are a num­ber of rare syn­dromes that have inter­est­ing or spe­cif­ic man­i­fes­ta­tions. Due to their rar­i­ty, few peo­ple know about them. Such syn­dromes are asso­ci­at­ed with injuries or strokes, sleep dis­or­ders or insom­nia, impaired per­cep­tion of pain, or the desire to con­stant­ly under­go surgery or treat­ment. Let’s talk about these syn­dromes in more detail.

Sleep related disorders

Sleep related disorders

One par­tic­u­lar sleep dis­or­der is explod­ing head syn­drome. Lit­tle has been writ­ten about such a devi­a­tion in the med­ical lit­er­a­ture. With such an anom­aly, a person’s sleep is dis­turbed as a result of the for­ma­tion of loud noise or explod­ing sounds that occur inside the head and are felt by the patient dur­ing falling asleep or direct­ly dur­ing sleep. Such “explo­sions” inside the head may be accom­pa­nied by flash­es of light in the eyes, a feel­ing of hor­ror and dif­fi­cul­ty in breath­ing. Accord­ing to doc­tors involved in the study of this syn­drome, such phe­nom­e­na are asso­ci­at­ed with stress and the patien­t’s state of over­strain. After prop­er rest, such symp­toms usu­al­ly dis­ap­pear and sleep is restored.

More dan­ger­ous and severe is anoth­er syn­drome, which is char­ac­ter­ized by fatal famil­ial insom­nia (sleep prob­lems that lead patients to death). This pathol­o­gy is inher­it­ed and is not amenable to ther­a­py, only forty fam­i­lies with such a spe­cial devi­a­tion have been iden­ti­fied world­wide. Peo­ple from these fam­i­lies sleep less and less time as time goes on, falling asleep with great dif­fi­cul­ty. Because of this, fatigue accu­mu­lates, hal­lu­ci­na­tions, delu­sion­al thoughts and headaches occur, and after a few years, death occurs due to over­work.

The basis of this pathol­o­gy is the defeat of a spe­cial part of the brain, the thal­a­mus, which is respon­si­ble for human sleep. It is this part of the brain that is respon­si­ble for the con­nec­tion between the cere­bral cor­tex and the body. It pass­es sig­nals from the cor­tex to the body and vice ver­sa. Dur­ing sleep, the con­duc­tion of impuls­es through this zone is reduced, which gives the brain a rest. With this syn­drome, these con­nec­tions are dis­rupt­ed, which affects sleep and its qual­i­ty. Pathol­o­gy occurs after 30 years, lasts from sev­er­al months to one and a half years and ends in death.

head injury syndrome

A spe­cial dis­or­der of speech func­tions, which is the result of trau­ma, is con­sid­ered “for­eign accent syn­drome”. With it, trau­ma leads to spe­cial changes in the func­tion­ing of the brain, expressed in a slight change in into­na­tion, stress in words and speed of speech. Because of this, the patien­t’s speech becomes sim­i­lar to the con­ver­sa­tion of those for­eign­ers who mas­ter for­eign lan­guages. Usu­al­ly a sim­i­lar phe­nom­e­non is formed if there has been a seri­ous head injury. Some­times this can be a con­se­quence of a stroke, after about one or two years, as the func­tion­al­i­ty of the brain tis­sue is restored. Since the 40s of the last cen­tu­ry, sci­en­tists have record­ed about 50 cas­es of such a dis­or­der. Most of the patients, after the treat­ment, learned to speak cor­rect­ly again, but some of them had a spe­cif­ic “accent” for the rest of their lives. One of the most notable cas­es was the sto­ry of a woman who was injured in a bomb­ing in Nor­way, and after she left the hos­pi­tal and recov­ered from her injury, she began to speak with a thick Ger­man accent. In anoth­er report­ed case, an Eng­lish woman in her 60s began to speak with a Japan­ese-like accent after a stroke.

pain insensitivity syndrome

pain insensitivity syndrome

In a small pro­por­tion of peo­ple, a par­tic­u­lar genet­ic break­down leads to the shut­down of pain per­cep­tion mech­a­nisms. Due to changes in the genes, the trans­mis­sion of pain impuls­es along sen­so­ry nerves suf­fers. Many may think that such a life, in which there is no suf­fer­ing and pain, is sim­ply ide­al, but in real­i­ty, peo­ple who are deprived of such sen­si­tiv­i­ty are con­stant­ly risk­ing their health and even life. The sen­sa­tion of pain forces us to be care­ful and atten­tive so as not to get hurt, cut or break some­thing. It is pain that is a sig­nal of dan­ger and an indi­ca­tor of ill health in the inter­nal organs.

Peo­ple who are deprived of the feel­ing of pain can eas­i­ly break or dis­lo­cate limbs, because they are not able to cal­cu­late the strength dur­ing move­ments, walk­ing, and var­i­ous habit­u­al actions. Young chil­dren suf­fer­ing from this syn­drome can injure them­selves, espe­cial­ly dur­ing peri­ods of learn­ing to walk, dur­ing teething. They can bite their tongue with­out notic­ing it, injure their arms, legs, face.

Sci­en­tists are close­ly study­ing such peo­ple; a rare genet­ic anom­aly has been iden­ti­fied in sev­er­al fam­i­lies in Pak­istan. Due to close­ly relat­ed mar­riages in these fam­i­lies, chil­dren were reg­u­lar­ly born into the world who were not sen­si­tive to pain. They made a liv­ing by per­form­ing on the streets, injur­ing and injur­ing them­selves. The pecu­liar­i­ty of the anom­aly is that such peo­ple do not feel pain, but they per­ceive heat and cold, touch and taste well.

Munchausen’s syndrome: pathological passion for disease and simulation

Munchausen's syndrome: pathological passion for disease and simulation

Many are famil­iar with the lit­er­ary baron Mun­chausen. A spe­cial syn­drome in med­i­cine is even named after him, in which peo­ple are prone to arti­fi­cial sim­u­la­tion, exces­sive exag­ger­a­tion, and the for­ma­tion of symp­toms of dis­eases in them­selves. This is done so that imag­i­nary dis­eases bring the patient to the hos­pi­tal, to the oper­at­ing table, or become an occa­sion for var­i­ous med­ical manip­u­la­tions. In addi­tion, it is impor­tant for them that they are treat­ed for a long time and active­ly by tak­ing cer­tain drugs and con­duct­ing med­ical pro­ce­dures. Such patients can sim­u­late a vari­ety of ill­ness­es, rang­ing from heart attacks, end­ing with asth­ma or tuber­cu­lo­sis, acute abdom­i­nal pain and ulcer­a­tive lesions.

They are char­ac­ter­ized by swal­low­ing for­eign objects, so that there are rea­sons for the oper­a­tion, tak­ing var­i­ous caus­tic sub­stances, so that bleed­ing of inter­nal organs opens, and delib­er­ate injuries to the body. At the same time, such peo­ple can take many pills, know­ing that they have no dis­eases and no indi­ca­tions for treat­ment either.

By Yraa

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