Why the brain needs daily sleep: the influence of hormones, the removal of “garbage”

By Yraa #according, #activate, #activity, #additional, #adult, #affects, #against, #almost, #amount, #animal, #another, #answer, #areas, #arise, #arises, #aspects, #associated, #average, #awake, #bad, #basic, #basis, #been, #being, #between, #blood, #Body, #brain,, #c, #cardiovascular, #category, #cause, #caused, #cells, #central, #children, #chronic, #circulation, #Cleaning, #coffee, #colds, #compared, #component, #composition, #consequences, #constant, #contract, #cortisol, #daily, #decision, #decrease, #decreases, #deep, #deficiency, #dehydration, #depression, #deprivation, #diabetes, #diagnosed, #difficulties, #disease, #diseases, #disorder, #disorders, #disturbances, #due, #duration, #energy, #enough, #even, #every, #example, #excess, #excessive, #fact, #factor, #feel, #fill, #fluid, #form, #formation, #found, #fully, #function, #getting, #Growth, #had, #health, #Helps, #higher, #his, #hormonal, #hormones,, #human, #immune, #includes, #incorrectly, #inflammation, #inflammatory, #influence, #insufficient, #insulin, #intensive, #involved, #irritability, #junk, #know, #known, #lack, #last, #leading, #leads, #learning, #leptin, #level, #levels, #little, #lives, #long, #lymphatic, #making, #materials, #mechanism, #million, #much, #needs, #negatively, #nervous, #new, #night, #now, #obesity, #occurs, #off, #original, #part, #people, #point, #poor, #population, #previously, #problems, #process, #Products, #proper, #protection, #protein, #providing, #provoke, #provoking, #pumping, #push, #quality, #question, #reasonable, #recovery, #reduced, #region, #regulated, #released, #removal, #remove, #removing, #repair, #research, #researchers, #rest, #resulting, #returns, #rhythm, #rhythms, #separate, #serious, #sets, #several, #Severe, #show, #signals, #significantly, #sleep, #some, #specific, #spends, #spinal, #spine, #stimulates, #studied, #studies, #study, #suffer, #surface, #symptoms, #synthesis, #system, #systems, #testosterone, #third, #throughout, #thyroid, #tissue, #today, #treatment, #turned, #two, #typical, #unique, #used, #very, #visible, #wakefulness, #was, #waste, #way, #weakness, #while, #why, #works, #year

Every­one needs prop­er sleep, and even chil­dren know this. A per­son spends a third of his life in sleep. Chron­ic lack of night rest pro­vokes ail­ments, irri­tabil­i­ty and even ill­ness. A rea­son­able ques­tion that aris­es is “why do you need to sleep and why does a per­son need such a long sleep time?” New research released last year attempts to answer this ques­tion and describes brain activ­i­ty that was not pre­vi­ous­ly known and stud­ied. In addi­tion, sleep is also reg­u­lat­ed by hor­mones, the defi­cien­cy or excess of which neg­a­tive­ly affects the qual­i­ty of rest.

Sleep time: before and now

Sleep time: before and now

The influ­ence of civ­i­liza­tion is vis­i­ble in many areas of human life, it also affects his sleep. Accord­ing to the lat­est Gallup poll in 2013, almost 40% of Amer­i­cans are sleep deprived, and 70 mil­lion peo­ple have a sleep dis­or­der diag­nosed and in need of treat­ment. Today, the aver­age sleep time at night for adults is 6.8 hours, while in the 1940s it was 8 hours. In 1952, 89% of the adult pop­u­la­tion had ade­quate sleep. Cur­rent­ly, only 59% of adults have ade­quate sleep on a con­sis­tent basis. This means that almost one in two peo­ple does not get ade­quate or qual­i­ty sleep on an almost dai­ly basis.

What diseases can be caused by lack of sleep?

Chances are, almost every­one has been in the cat­e­go­ry of bad sleep­ers at some point in their lives. Many peo­ple know the state when you need to get up ear­ly in the morn­ing with­out get­ting enough sleep, or due to the fact that sleep was inter­mit­tent dur­ing the night. At best, many feel dis­or­ga­nized and lethar­gic, a lit­tle angry. For many with occa­sion­al sleep depri­va­tion, cof­fee or break­fast helps to cheer up. But it is pos­si­ble that many symp­toms or prob­lems arise, rang­ing from irri­tabil­i­ty, learn­ing dif­fi­cul­ties, poor mem­o­ry, inad­e­quate deci­sion-mak­ing, absent-mind­ed­ness, to more severe dis­tur­bances in well-being and even pro­vok­ing ill­ness.

Chron­ic sleep dis­or­ders pro­voke headaches and migraines, con­stant weak­ness and lethar­gy, prob­lems with blood pres­sure, obe­si­ty. Such peo­ple often have colds and flu due to a weak­ened immune sys­tem, car­dio­vas­cu­lar dis­eases, and an increase in noc­tur­nal uri­na­tion is typ­i­cal. Inflam­ma­to­ry bow­el dis­ease, dia­betes, can­cer, demen­tia, depres­sion, hor­mon­al imbal­ance and oth­er prob­lems can be pro­voked.

The main prob­lem is that if a per­son does not get enough sleep, it affects every process of the body at one lev­el or anoth­er, tis­sue repair is inef­fi­cient.

Features of the brain: a system for removing “garbage”

The brain has a unique “debris removal” sys­tem sep­a­rate from the rest of the body. It includes the cere­brospinal flu­id of a spe­cif­ic com­po­si­tion that sur­rounds the brain and spinal cord. It does not inter­act with the lym­phat­ic or cir­cu­la­to­ry sys­tem out­side of its region (with­in the blood-brain bar­ri­er). Researchers, through ani­mal exper­i­ments, have iden­ti­fied spe­cif­ic path­ways in the brain that are involved in the “junk removal” process. They are part of the glym­phat­ic sys­tem, which includes a sys­tem of glial cells and lym­phat­ic cap­il­lar­ies that form the unique “lym­phat­ic sys­tem” of the brain.

Why does the brain need sleep?

Why does the brain need sleep?

This for­ma­tion works like a sew­er­age sys­tem in the brain to remove waste prod­ucts. Sleep stim­u­lates the glym­phat­ic sys­tem, acti­vat­ing a new­ly dis­cov­ered mech­a­nism that is unique in its own way. Dur­ing sleep, neu­rons con­tract by about 60%, and chan­nels through­out the brain and between cells enlarge and fill with cere­brospinal flu­id. Sur­round­ing glial cells acti­vate their pump­ing sys­tems, push cere­brospinal flu­id through these addi­tion­al spaces, and flush out the result­ing metabo­lites. This waste flu­id is even­tu­al­ly excret­ed out­side the brain and spine into the vas­cu­lar cir­cu­la­tion and some of it into the lym­phat­ic sys­tem, mix­ing with the rest of the body’s waste mate­ri­als.

When a per­son is awake, these path­ways close and the cere­brospinal flu­id returns to its orig­i­nal home­o­sta­t­ic func­tion. It sur­rounds the sur­face of the brain and spinal cord, pro­vid­ing pro­tec­tion against dehy­dra­tion, and is involved in the metab­o­lism of the cen­tral ner­vous sys­tem. Dur­ing wake­ful­ness, the clean­ing process occurs only with­in 5% of its per­for­mance com­pared to sleep. This process is so ener­gy-inten­sive that it can only ful­ly work when deep sleep sets in.

Genes and impaired hormone synthesis

Oth­er stud­ies show that sleep depri­va­tion has seri­ous con­se­quences for many oth­er aspects of life and health, some of which have not yet been stud­ied. For exam­ple, a 2013 study found that insuf­fi­cient sleep and dis­rupt­ed cir­ca­di­an rhythms cause more than 700 genes to be turned on or off incor­rect­ly. These gene sig­nals have been asso­ci­at­ed with cir­ca­di­an rhythm mech­a­nisms, sleep home­osta­sis, oxida­tive stress, and metab­o­lism. Lack of ade­quate qual­i­ty sleep leads to RNA/DNA mod­i­fi­ca­tion, gene poly­mor­phism, changes in basic meta­bol­ic func­tion, inflam­ma­tion, immune imbal­ance, and high­er lev­els of stress respons­es.

Sleep depri­va­tion is also known to cause changes in the syn­the­sis of sev­er­al hor­mones. For exam­ple, it leads to an increase in the syn­the­sis of insulin and a decrease in the sen­si­tiv­i­ty of cells to it, a decrease in the lev­el of growth hor­mone. Oth­er hor­mones also suf­fer — cor­ti­sol lev­els increase, the amount of pro­lactin and lep­tin, DHEA decreas­es. Sleep defi­cien­cy sig­nif­i­cant­ly affects thy­roid hor­mones — the syn­the­sis of TSH and free T4 is dis­rupt­ed depend­ing on the dura­tion of sleep dis­tur­bances, and testos­terone is reduced by as much as 70%.

ai generated, robot, brain
ai generated, robot, brain
ai generated, robot, brain

A nec­es­sary com­po­nent for brain recov­ery, BDNF (brain-derived neu­rotroph­ic fac­tor), is also reduced by 33% with sleep depri­va­tion and exces­sive activ­i­ty with­out rest. This neg­a­tive­ly affects how these hor­mones are used, lead­ing to an increase in inflam­ma­to­ry mark­ers such as C‑reactive pro­tein and inflam­ma­to­ry cytokines. The con­se­quences of these changes are very seri­ous.

By Yraa

Leave a Reply